Presentation on theme: "Retaking Europe Prior to December 7, 1941, much of America was ISOLATIONIST The war in Europe was Europe’s problem! ◦ Neutrality Laws Prohibited selling."— Presentation transcript:
Retaking Europe Prior to December 7, 1941, much of America was ISOLATIONIST The war in Europe was Europe’s problem! ◦ Neutrality Laws Prohibited selling of weapons Sell goods on a cash and carry basis Unlawful for Americans to travel on a warring nation’s vessel FDR was worried about the expansion of totalitarian governments ◦ Lend-Lease Program- President could lend aid to any nation he believed was vital to American security
Americans Join the Struggle In 1941, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt met in secret … Created the Atlantic Charter – outlined war aims and set up basis for United Nations The United States entered the war in December 1941, a critical time for the Allies.
Why focus on Europe? After Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor… Pacific Fleet was crippled FDR decided to fight a defensive war in the Pacific Allies decide to center attention on Europe first
In North Africa a mixed German and Italian army was bearing down… Blitzkrieg had extended Nazi control through most of Europe.
The Battle of the Atlantic: German U-boats sailed out from ports in France and attacked and destroyed Allied merchant ships. A. GB relied on US shipments of food and supplies. B.US protected ships from U-boats w/ convoys. C.Germany began to attack w/ large groups of U-boats called wolfpacks.
War in the Soviet Union A. After losing the Battle of Britain Hitler turns to the east and attacks Russia. Attack begins in June 1941.
Invasion of Soviet Union G. Asked Roosevelt for help under Lend-Lease Act. H. Stalin urges allies to attack Hitler in Western Europe Uhh…little help here guys…
The German advance (1941–1942) In June 1941, more than 3 million Axis troops crossed the Soviet border. by September 1941, German armies threatened the capital, Moscow
The Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943): By October 1941, the cold Russian winter put a stop to the German advance, The Red Army made its stand at Stalingrad, a major rail and industrial center on the Volga River.
In November, the Soviets took advantage of the harsh winter to launch a counterattack. The German army was soon surrounded in the ruined city with no supplies and no hope of escape. In November, the Soviets took advantage of the harsh winter to launch a counterattack. The German army was soon surrounded in the ruined city with no supplies and no hope of escape.
On January 31, 1943, more than 90,000 surviving Germans surrendered. Germany’s seemingly unstoppable offensive was over and this proved to be the turning point of the war in the East. Germany’s seemingly unstoppable offensive was over and this proved to be the turning point of the war in the East.
The Allied Air War The British Royal Air Force (RAF) had been fending off attacks from the German Air Force (the Luftwaffe) and carrying out long-range attacks on German cities. Allies begin CARPET BOMBING Massive damage to German Cities (civilians as well as military…)
Allied Bombing! Allied bombing of Germany intensified after the United States entered the war. More than 40,000 civilians died in four attacks on Hamburg, Germany, in the summer of By 1944, British and American commanders were conducting coordinated raids— American planes bombing by day and RAF planes bombing at night. At its height, some 3,000 planes took part in this campaign.
Russia Needs Help! Where to Strike?
AFRICA! The North Africa campaign: From 1940 to 1943, the Allies and Axis battled in North Africa, with neither side gaining much of an advantage, until Allied armies finally trapped the Axis forces. About 240,000 Germans and Italians surrendered.
Onto Italy… The invasion of Italy: In 1943, U.S. troops under General George S. Patton invaded the island of Sicily with British forces.
Invasion of Italy A. Control of Africa led to Allies making next move to retake Europe. B. Decide to target Italy! c. Many lose faith in Mussolini at this point, King Victor Emmanuel III has him arrested.
D. Fascist party is disbanded, but Mussolini escapes w/ help of Hitler. D.Sept Italy w/ Rome under fire by Allies turns on Germany. E.Leads to bloody showdown btwn Germans and Allies.
Mussolini’s End German’s in N. Italy don’t surrender until April That same month Mussolini is shot and killed by Italians
The Invasion of Western Europe Operation Overlord, General George Marshall, FDR’s Chief of Staff, wanted to invade Western Europe—specifically German forces occupying France. The invasion, code-named Operation Overlord, would be launched from Great Britain. General Eisenhower would be the supreme commander of the invasion forces. Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force… You are about to embark on …
interactive D-Day: On June 6, 1944, the invasion of Western Europe began.
German’s heavily fortify the French coastline.
D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944
D-Day (June 6, 1944) 4,600 invasion craft 1,000 bombers 150,000 troops attempt to come ashore on 60m of coast
C. Hitler hesitated to counterattack D. Depsite heavy casualties the allies are succesful in taking the beaches of Normandy
Gen. Patton now uses “blitzkrieg” tactics on Hitler. August 1945—Liberation of France!
Battle of the Bulge Nazi’s Counterattack! – forming a “bulge” in the Allied lines Desperate to defend it’s territory Largest battle ever fought by U.S. Army! December 1944 –Americans begin crossing German border….
Battle of Bulge Involved over 800,000 GI’s, 80,000 casualties. Involved over 800,000 GI’s, 80,000 casualties. German losses totaled 100,000 German losses totaled 100,000 after this battle...Germany realizes the war is lost… after this battle...Germany realizes the war is lost…
March 1945 American’s cross the Rhine River and moved toward the German capital of Berlin from the west.
War Ends in Europe Meanwhile, Soviet troops fight their way to Berlin from the east. Meanwhile, Soviet troops fight their way to Berlin from the east. This fighting resulted in the deaths of some 11 million Soviet and 3 million German soldiers—more than two thirds of the soldiers killed in the entire war. This fighting resulted in the deaths of some 11 million Soviet and 3 million German soldiers—more than two thirds of the soldiers killed in the entire war. The Soviets finally reached Berlin in late April The Soviets finally reached Berlin in late April 1945.
“Battle of Berlin” Soviets surround Berlin. Hitler refuses to surrender—he commits suicide in his bunker. …or does he…
Germany surrenders on May 8, 1945 US meets up with Soviets at Elbe River, and a few days later Germany surrenders on May 8, 1945
Times Square – VE Day!
Yalta Conference The Yalta Conference: In February, 1945, months before the fall of Berlin, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta in the Soviet Union, to discuss the shape of the postwar world. The leaders agreed: (1)to split Germany into four zones, each under the control of a major Ally, including France. (2)They planned a similar division of Berlin. (3)Stalin promised to allow free elections in the nations of Eastern Europe that his army had liberated from the Germans. (4)He also promised to enter the war against Japan. Stalin did not fulfill any of these promises.
Estimated World War II Deaths CountryMilitary DeathsCivilian DeathsTotal Deaths Axis Germany3,250,0002,350,0005,600,000 Italy226,90060,000286,900 Japan1,740,000393,4002,133,400 Allies France122,000470,000592,000 Great Britain305,80060,600366,400 United States405, ,400 Soviet Union11,000,0006,700,00017,700,000 China1,400,0008,000,0009,400,000 SOURCE: World War II: A Statistical Survey