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AKS 34 The Islamic World Chapter 10 Pages 263-279.

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Presentation on theme: "AKS 34 The Islamic World Chapter 10 Pages 263-279."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKS 34 The Islamic World Chapter 10 Pages

2 34a – explain the origins of Islam, the basic tenants, and the growth of the Islamic Empire WARM-UP:

3 Origins of Islam Bedouins –Arab nomads –Ideals of courage, loyalty to family, and warrior skills became an important part of the Islamic way of life

4 Origins of Islam Muhammad’s Early Life –Orphaned at age 6 –Raised by his grandfather and uncle –Received very little schooling –Began working in caravan trade as a young man Became the trader and business manager for Khadijah, whom he later married

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6 Origins of Islam Muhammad’s Revelations –Muhammad was meditating in a cave outside Mecca when he heard a voice who told Muhammad he was a messenger of Allah He believed the voice was that of the angel Gabriel –He came to believe that he was the last of the prophets and began to teach that Allah was the one and only God and all others must be abandoned Islam = “submission to the will of Allah” Muslim = “one who has submitted”

7 Origins of Islam Ideas Rejected in Mecca –Meccans feared that the traditional Arab gods would be neglected and Mecca would no longer be a center for pilgrims Mecca had become a religious destination because that was where the Ka’aba was located –The Ka’aba was associated with Abraham, a Hebrew prophet and believer in one God –Over the years, they had introduced the worship of many gods and spirits – it contained over 360 idols

8 Origins of Islam The Hijrah –Muhammad decided to leave Mecca in 622 after some of his followers were attacked –He moved to Yathrib (later called Medina), 200 miles north of Mecca This migration is known as the Hijrah, or “flight” –Turning Point because: Attracted many devoted followers Became a popular religious leader Became a political leader who united Arabs, Muslims, & Jews Became a military leader in the hostilities between Mecca and Medina

9 Origins of Islam Muhammad’s Return to Mecca –630: Muhammad & 10,000 of his followers marched to Mecca Mecca’s leaders surrendered without a fight Muhammad destroyed the idols in the Ka’aba and had the call to prayer made from its roof Most Meccans pledged their loyalty to Muhammad and converted to Islam –Mecca became a base from which to work toward unifying the Arabian Peninsula under Islam

10 Basic Tenants of Islam There is only one god, Allah Each person is responsible for his or her own actions

11 Basic Tenants of Islam Five Pillars of Islam –Faith –Prayer –Alms –Fasting –Pilgrimage Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life. Carrying out the Five Pillars of Islam and other customs ensures that Muslims live their religion while serving in their communities

12 Basic Tenants of Islam Faith –To become a Muslim, a person has to testify to the following statement of faith: “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” This simple statement is heard again and again in Islamic rituals and in Muslim daily life

13 Basic Tenants of Islam Prayer –Five times a day, Muslims face toward Mecca to pray. They may assemble at a mosque (Islamic house of worship) or wherever they find themselves

14 Basic Tenants of Islam Alms –Muhammad taught that all Muslims have a responsibility to support the less fortunate. Muslims meet that social responsibility by giving alms, or money for the poor, through a special religious tax

15 Basic Tenants of Islam Fasting –During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast between dawn and sunset. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day. Fasting serves to remind Muslims that their spiritual needs are greater than their physical needs

16 Basic Tenants of Islam Pilgrimage –All Muslims who are physically and financially able perform the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in their lifetime. Pilgrims wear identical garments so that all stand as equals before Allah Hajj to Mecca encouraged trade and promoted faith throughout the Islamic Empire

17 Basic Tenants of Islam Sources of Authority –Original source of authority is Allah –Islam has a scholar class called the ulama –The Qur’an is the holy book of Muslims –The best model for proper living is the Sunna, or Muhammad’s example –Guidance of Sunna and Qur’an was assembled into a body of law called shari’a System of law regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business & community life of Muslims

18 Islamic Empire Expands Muhammad’s Death –Died in 632 –Abu-Bakr, a loyal friend, became the first caliph, or “successor” Spread Islam by waging jihad against nonbelievers –Jihad has two meanings: »Means “striving” and refers to inner struggle against evil »Means “holy war” against those who do not believe

19 Islamic Empire Expands The “Rightly Guided” Caliphs –Used the Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions as guides to their leadership –Mobilized highly disciplined armies that conquered Arabia, parts of the Byzantine Empire, and parts of the Sassanid Empire

20 Islamic Empire Expands Reasons Why Expansion Was Successful: –Muslims were willing to fight to extend and defend Islam –Armies were well disciplined and expertly commanded –Byzantine and Sassanid empires were weak –People who had suffered from religious persecution welcomed the more tolerant invaders From 632 to 750, highly mobile troops mounted on camels were successful in conquering lands in the name of Allah

21 Islamic Empire Expands Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, was assassinated –This ended the elective system of choosing a caliph The Umayyads –Moved the Muslim capital to Damascus –Abandoned the simple life of previous caliphs –Surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremony –Collapsed due to religious & political opposition

22 Islamic Empire Expands The Abbasids –Took power because they were the most powerful of the rebel groups that opposed the Umayyads –Moved the capital to a newly created city, Baghdad –Developed strong bureaucracy to conduct the affairs of the huge empire –Created a system of taxation –Established strong trade network –Failed to keep complete political control over their immense empire, and so they eventually fell

23 34b – identify the Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe, and Africa and assess the economic impact of this trade WARM-UP:

24 Muslim Trade Network Trade flourished during the reign of the Abbasids Two major sea-trading networks: –Mediterranean Sea –Indian Ocean Land networks: –Silk Roads –Arabian Peninsula

25 Muslim Trade Network Trade Encouraged By: –Muslim money changers who set up banks in cities throughout the empire –Banks offered sakks, or credit, to merchants that could be exchanged for cash throughout the empire In Europe, sakk was pronounced “check”, so using checks dates back to the Muslim Empire Silk Roads & Arabian Peninsula: –Connected Muslims world to China, India, Europe, and Africa –Arabian Peninsula Connected Indian Ocean trade routes to Mediterranean Sea –Muslim merchants needed only to speak Arabic (unifying force of Islamic Empire) and the Abbasid dinar as a currency to travel No one person traveled the entire length of the Silk Road – middlemen would buy goods in one region and sell them in another

26 34c – explain the reasons for the split between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims WARM-UP:

27 The Conflict 656 –Uthman, the third caliph, was murdered There was disagreement over who should succeed Muhammad –Ali was the natural choice as a successor, but his right to rule was challenged by Muawiya, a governor of Syria Ali was assassinated –Umayyad family filled the power vacuum

28 The Split Majority of Muslims accepted Umayyad rule in the interest of peace – they became Sunni, meaning followers of Muhammad’s example Some continued to resist – they became Shi’a –The Shi’a said that the caliph needed to be a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Shi’a means “party” of Ali. Another group, the Sufi, rejected the luxurious lifestyle of the Umayyads and pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path.

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30 34d – identify the contributions of Islamic scholars in culture, innovations, and the preservation of Classical knowledge to include: medicine (Ibn Sina) and geography (Ibn Battuta) WARM-UP:

31 Muslim Cities Cities symbolized the strength of the caliphate. Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid empire. –Baghdad’s city plan included circular design and protective walls

32 Social Classes Four Social Classes: –The upper class was Muslims by birth –The second class included converts to Islam –The third class included Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians –The lowest class was made up of slaves **These social classes do not exist anymore

33 Role of Women According to the Qur’an, men and women are equal as believers Muslim women were expected to submit to men Muslim women were expected to be veiled when out in public

34 Muslim Literature The Qur’an is the standard for all Arabic literature and poetry Literary tastes also included poems about nature and the pleasures of life and love Bedouin poets composed poems on bravery, love, and generosity.

35 Muslim Art Calligraphy –The art of beautiful handwriting –Allowed artists who could not portray living beings to express themselves

36 Muslim Architecture Lots of cultural blending Mix between Muslim and Byzantine ideas, some Roman ideas mixed in there Mostly seen in mosques

37 Muslim Medicine al-Razi –Considered greatest physician of Muslim world by Europeans –Wrote an encyclopedia and wrote the Treatise on Smallpox and Measles Ibn Sina –Wrote Canon of Medicine, a standard medical textbook used in Europe until the 17 th century

38 Muslim Math and Science New Ideas: –Reliance on scientific observation & experimentation –Ability to find mathematical solutions to old problems Science –Muslim scientists preferred to solve problems by conducting experiments in laboratory settings Math –Al-Khwarizmi Mathematician who wrote a textbook explaining “the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quantity” This was called al-jabr – today called algebra

39 Muslim Geography Ibn Battuta –Traveler and historian –Visited most of the countries in the Islamic world, including cities like Timbuktu and other cities in Mali –He learned he could travel without fear of crime and praised people for their study of the Qur’an, but criticized them for not strictly practicing Islam’s moral code

40 Muslim Philosophy Scholars translated works of Greek philosophers into Arabic Ibn Rushd –Tried to blend Greek views with those of Islam

41 34e – describe the impact of the Crusades on both the Islamic World and Europe WARM-UP:

42 The Crusades Cause –1093: Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders asking for help against the Muslim Turks threatening to conquer his capital, Constantinople Pope Urban II also read the letter and issued a call for a “holy war,” or a Crusade to gain control of the Holy Land

43 The Crusades Goals: –Stop Muslim aggression & regain Holy Land –Pope wanted to reclaim Palestine & reunite Christendom (the Schism in 1054) Crusades would unite Europe in a common cause –Get rid of quarrelsome knights who were fighting each other –Younger sons wanted land, adventure, and riches

44 The Crusades First Crusade (1096) –Reasons: God’s will Tax relief Riches in Palestine –Result: Conquered Jerusalem in 1099 Slaughtered Muslims & Jews

45 The Crusades Second Crusade (1144) –Reasons: Same as First Crusade –Result: Muslim Turks re-take part of the Holy Land 1187 – Saladin recaptures Jerusalem

46 The Crusades Third Crusade (1189) –Reason: Recapture Jerusalem –Result: Richard the Lion- Hearted and Saladin fought many battles Agreed to a truce in 1192

47 The Crusades Fourth Crusade –Reasons: Recapture Jerusalem (what else??) –Result: Knights did not even reach the Holy Land and instead ended up looting Constantinople

48 The Crusades Fifth – Eighth Crusades –All to recapture Jerusalem, all failed

49 The Crusades Children’s Crusade (1212) –30,000 children under the age of 18 set out to conquer Jerusalem Most died of cold or starvation on the trip there The rest drowned at sea or were sold into slavery –This illustrates the power the Church had because people believed in the teaching so much that they allowed their children to embark on a dangerous journey

50 The Crusades Spanish Crusade –Reconquista: Long effort by the Spanish to drive out the Muslims in Spain (called Moors) – were eventually successful

51 The Crusades Spanish Crusade –Spanish Inquisition: Under the direction of Ferdinand and Isabella Goal was to unify Spanish Christians and suppress heresy Many Jews & Muslims converted during the late 1400s Person suspected of heresy might be questioned for weeks and even tortured. Once they confessed, they were often burned at the stake. Next slide has pictures of some torture methods used

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53 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades: –Social Women could manage affairs on the estates or operate shops and inns (because they were the ones left at home) Led to the growth of trade, towns, and universities in medieval Europe – benefits both Christians and Muslims –Economic Merchants who lived in Crusader states expanded trade between Europe and SW Asia –Political Failure of later crusades lessened the power of the Pope Weakened feudal nobility Increased power of the kings Fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire

54 The Crusades Impact on the Islamic World: –Intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in the Holy Land left behind a legacy of bitterness and hatred that continues to the present

55 34f – analyze the impact of the expansion of the Mongol Empire to include the stabilization of trading networks from China to the Mediterranean world and the decline of the Islamic Empires SEE AKS 33g

56 34g – analyze the relationship between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam WARM-UP:

57 Links Between Religions To Muslims, Allah is the same God worshiped in Christianity & Judaism –Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not the Son of God Qur’an is the word of Allah as revealed to Muhammad in the same way the Torah and Gospels were revealed to Moses and the New Testament writers –Believe Qur’an perfects earlier revelations, it is the final book, and Muhammad is the final prophet

58 Links Between Religions All three believe in heaven, hell, and a day of judgment –Jews do not place as much emphasis on hell All trace their ancestry to Abraham Muslims refer to Christians and Jews as “people of the book” Shari’a law requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance to Christians & Jews Ten Commandments can be found in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as a code for behavior


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