Presentation on theme: "The People of the Civil War Developed by: Todd Goodwin Bob Jones Marilyn Zavorski Applewild School Fitchburg, MA Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, MA."— Presentation transcript:
The People of the Civil War Developed by: Todd Goodwin Bob Jones Marilyn Zavorski Applewild School Fitchburg, MA Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, MA Teaching American History: Secession, Civil War and Reconstruction July 2005
Focus: The War Begins, 1861 – 1862 Confederate High Tide, 1862 –1863 Yankee Resurgence, 1863 – 1865 Billy Yank and Johnny Reb Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, MA Teaching American History: Secession, Civil War and Reconstruction July 2005
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Between 1861 and 1865 the people of the United States were involved, as Abraham Lincoln reminded us at Gettysburg, in “a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated can long endure.” Who were these people?
Some, like Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, are still very familiar to us today.
Can you name the president of the seceding states, also called the Confederate States of America? Jefferson Davis http://www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/151.jpg
What is the term used to describe the official advisors to the president? Cabinet Here is President Lincoln’s cabinet.
Many remember Generals Grant and Lee. Which side did each lead? The UnionThe Confederates General GrantGeneral Lee
Which Union general is remembered for his famous “march to the sea” through Georgia? William Tecumseh Sherman
Which Confederate general, who Lee called his right arm, was tragically killed by his own men at Chancellorsville,VA? Hint: His nickname was Stonewall. Thomas J. Jackson
There sure were many generals in the Civil War. This is Winfield Scott, the highest ranking Federal general at the beginning of the war. Whom did he recommend to Lincoln for field commander of the Union Army? Robert E. Lee
Here are two Confederate generals: P. G. T. Beauregard Joseph E. Johnston Here are two Confederate generals:
For much of the war Lincoln sought a general who would aggressively attack the Confederate Army. Pictured here with President Lincoln is one of his more controversial generals, who later ran for president against Lincoln. Can you name him? George B. McClellan
Both sides in the war used soldiers riding on horseback. What is the term for this type of soldier? Cavalry Here is Lee’s most famous cavalry commander, J. E. B. Stuart. Note the the high boots and saber and plumed hat of this cavalry leader.
Here is another group of southern cavalry raiders under the leadership John S. Mosby in the center with the plumed hat.
On the left is General Philip Sheridan, a Union cavalry leader and his staff. The man sitting on the chair on the right is nicknamed the “boy general.” Can you name him? Hint: Later he will be known for his “last stand.” George Armstrong Custer
Many of the officers on both sides of the war were graduates of the United States Military Academy at West Point. On the right is Custer as a lieutenant. On the left is his West Point classmate, James Washington of the Confederate Army, who had just been captured.
Both sides also had navies, though the Union’s was much stronger. The fleets of these two men helped control the Mississippi River for the Union. Admiral David G. FarragutAdmiral David Dixon Porter
In addition to the famous, people of all walks of life were involved in the Civil War. They were the farmers, teamsters, mill workers, craftsmen, women, children and slaves. Some we know by name, some remain anonymous.
Here are some Virginian militia on the eve of the war. All over the country there were state and local militia groups.
Northern Recruitment Poster To meet the increased demand, soldiers were recruited from all walks of life. http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwphotos.html
http://www.hangmansknot.com/images/pic_riots.gif As the war progressed, both sides resorted to drafting men to fight. This was not popular with all citizens.
http://www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/007.jpg Over 3 million people served in the armies of the Civil War. http://www.civil-war.net/
Here is a Union regimental band in training camp. What were bands and musicians used for in the war? They provided signals and directions during battle and entertainment in camp. Click on the drum to hear the Battle Cry of Freedom. Close the website and advance this slide with arrow key. X
Here is the crew of the USS Monitor. What was a monitor? It is was a class of ironclad ships built by the Union Navy.
Fraternization - Federal and Confederate pickets trading between the lines -- usually northern coffee for southern tobacco. Original pencil drawing by Edwin Forbes. Drawing: Library of Congress However, the war wasn’t just fighting.
Here are some of Sherman’s soldiers tearing up southern railroad tracks on their “march to the sea.”
Here are Lee’s men just after learning about the southern surrender at Appomattox.
First published in 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel greatly helped the anti-slavery movement. Women played a valuable role in this era. http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwphotos.html
Slave Pen, Alexandria, Va. Photographer: Andrew J. Russell. http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwphotos2.html Harriet Beecher Stowe worked to awaken the North to the harshness of slavery.
http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t001/T001921B.jpg from agriculture and the crafts... For over 200 years black slaves toiled to build America
http://www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/014.jpg Black Laborers on a Wharf - James River, VA to urban labor.
Escaped slaves seek refuge behind Union lines - Such blacks were often called "contrabands." Historical photo: Library of Congress The coming of war changed the status of many blacks.
Frederick Douglass - Anti-slavery leader (1817-95). Historical photo: Library of Congress The great abolitionist leader, Frederick Douglass, urged the North to enlist Blacks to fight for the cause.
Company E, 4th US. Colored Infantry Fort Lincoln, District of Columbia By the end of the war, over 200,00 blacks served in the Union Army and Navy.
“In this Civil War handbill for black recruits, African American soldiers are shown liberating slaves and bringing new hope for a good education and a productive way of life.” http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/detail/recruitment-handbill.html Recruitment Handbill
Women served in a variety of ways. Clara Barton was given a nickname for helping the sick and wounded soldiers on the battlefield. What was it? “Angel of the Battlefield”
Annie Ethridge "Civilian" (aka Gentle Annie, Michigan Annie) http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/8558/2ndMich/bios/bioannie.html Served with: 2nd, 3rd and 5th Michigan Infantry, also closely connected with the 40th New York (Mozart Regiment) Volunteer Infantry Present at: First Bull Run, Williamsburg, Second Bull Run, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Petersburg, Cold Harbor, Blackburn's Ford, Appomattox and New York to help limit draft riots; also worked on several transport ships: Knickerbocker, Louisiana, Daniel Webster, Wenona Daughter of the Regiment/Nurse http://www.vivandiere.net/unionvivs.html
Dr. Mary Edwards Walker November 26, 1832 - February 21, 1919 Surgeon, Spy, Suffragette, Prisoner of War, Proponent of Style and Congressional Medal of Honor Winner http://www.undelete.org/military/mil3walker.html http://www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_325.html
These two women were spies for the Confederacy.
Rose Greenhow warned the Confederacy of the Union advance, which led to the first Battle of Bull Run. She is pictured here with her daughter while in Union custody.
Malinda Blalock, alias Sam Blalock http://www.cojoweb.com/malinda_blaylock.html “This is a photograph of ‘Sam’ Blalock of Co. F (The Hibriten Guards) of the 26th NC Troops. She is holding a photograph of her husband, William McKesson (Keith) Blalock, who also served in Co. F. ‘Sam’ was born in 1842 and, at age 20, she and her husband would embark on a remarkable adventure.” Some women even fought in combat.
Frances Clayton Photos from Boston Public Library She served many months in Missouri artillery and cavalry units disguised as a man.
Sarah Emma Edmonds of Michigan (originally from Canada) alias Frank Thompson, Civil War soldier and spy
http://docsouth.unc.edu/velazquez/velazquez.html Loreta Janeta Velazquez, b. 1842 Alias, Harry T. Buford, C.S.A.
Mathew Brady Alexander Gardner Alfred Waud Photographers and illustrators helped us remember the people of the Civil War. http://www.treasurenet.com/images/civilwar/CIVIL067.JPG Brady's photographic outfit in the field near Petersburg, Va., 1864.
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/gtburg.htm They photographed and drew both the living and the dead Reconnaissance by Buford’s Calvary towards the Rapidan River [published in Harper's Weekly,October 3, 1863] by Alfred Waud The Dead at Antietam by Alexander Gardner http://www.ipeters.de/photography.html#gardner http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm041.html
Confederate and Union soldiers shaking hands - Old soldiers are reunited in peaceful times at the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, 1913. Historical photo: Library of Congress Those who actually lived during this period are no longer with us.
President Lincoln helped us remember these people with his words in the Gettysburg Address.
Gettysburg, PA - Audience during Lincoln's Address, November 19, 1863. This is the only known photo taken of the event. Historical photo: Library of Congress
Gettysburg Address in President Lincoln's handwriting. http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwphotos.html
“… we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.” Click on Abe to hear Johnny Cash read the Gettysburg Address. Close the website and press the right arrow key to continue. X
Image credits Miller, Francis Trevelyan, ed., Photographic History of the Civil War, 10 volumes, Springfield, MA: Patriot Publishing, 1911. (brown-tint images) Civil War ClipArt CD by Finley-Holiday Film Corp., Whittier, CA Civil War Picture CD by Finley-Holiday Film Corp., Whittier, CA http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brady-photos/ http://www.civil-war.net/http://www.civil-war.net/ excellent http://civilwarclipart.com/Clipartgallery/clipart1.htm http://classroomclipart.com/ http://184.108.40.206/Clipartgallery/illus.html http://www.mdhs.org/library/Z24CivilWar.htmlhttp://www.mdhs.org/library/Z24CivilWar.html excellent http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwphotos.html http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html http://www.tennessee-scv.org/Camp1513/clipart.htm http://www.wisegorilla.com/images/civilwar/civilwar.html Press Esc to end program These websites may be opened by clicking on them.