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1 Acknowledgement: The outline for this presentation was developed by:
Implicit Bias Acknowledgement: The outline for this presentation was developed by:

2 Starr Rayford Leslie Richards-Yellen

3 Definition Implicit: means that we are either unaware or mistaken about the source of the thought or feeling.

4 Warning: You will feel a bit uncomfortable – go with it
Notice your defensiveness and accept discomfort of unlearning and relearning Keep an open mind and listen first

5 Goal: Think about adopting personal strategies to diminish your personal bias

6 Our Personal Experiences with Bias
Personalize by having panelists tell short story that demonstrates how bias exhibited by another affected their prospects or how bias they exhibited affected others

7 Am I biased?

8 Yes Whether we are female/male, affluent/not affluent, black/white/Hispanic/Asian/Native American/immigrant, gay/straight, disabled/abled, older/younger

9 Examples of Automatic Attitude Directed Toward Social Group
Standing Distance Eye Contact Judgment of Facial Expression Speaking Time

10 Example of what IAT tests Say the Color


12 How do I measure my biases?

13 Take the IAT Implicit Association Test Race IAT Gender – Science IAT Age IAT Weight IAT Gender IAT

14 The IAT Measures implicit reasoning
Asked to categorize information quickly Calculates reaction time in milliseconds Calculates accuracy Statistically, speed and accuracy difference meaningfully reflects your cognitive process IAT is an empirical tool to measure bias

15 Examples of IAT Utilization in Legal Research
Guilty/Not Guilty IAT – people implicitly associate Black people = guilty Level of implicit bias predicted the way people evaluated evidence in a criminal trial Unarmed Black men are more likely to be shot than unarmed white men. Low income members of society are frequent targets of discrimination.

16 How does bias affect the objects of bias and general culture?

17 Classic social psychology research shows people allocate more resources and report more positive attitudes toward in-group members even when people are randomly assigned to meaningless groups.

18 Most White Americans Respond faster on IAT when “African American” and “bad” are paired than when “African American” and “good” are paired, reflecting more negative automatic associations with African Americans relative to whites

19 Study: IAT and Immigration Policy Judgments (Lopez 2010)
Are immigration policy judgments (e.g., anti-immigration sentiment) shaped by – Politics? Intolerance towards foreigners? Negative attitudes towards Latinos/Latino immigrants?

20 Testing “Boys are Better” Stereotype
Scenario 1: Female science majors see video of conference with 75% male participation Scenario 2: Video shows conference in which participants are gender balanced


22 Women Involved in Scenario 1:
Felt less “belonging” Less desire to participate Experience more psychological markers related to stress

23 Familiarity Reduces Sexual Orientation Bias
High-contact: People with GLBT friends or family members tend to show less bias against them, both overtly and in implicit bias tests Low-contact: After viewing photos and biographies of famous GLBT individuals, their implicit bias scores were not significantly different from the high-contact group.

24 Ways to Combat Hidden bias
Reframe the conversation Focus on fair treatment and respect Support projects that encourage positive images instead of stereotypes Studies show positive images of specific groups of people can combat hidden bias

25 Rethink Your: Resistance to Change Tolerance for Inequity

26 Less Biased People Have a Complex or Conflicted Stance as they Harbor Some Degree of Automatic Bias Along with an Explicit Commitment to Egalitarianism

27 DON’T: Accept automatic responses as valid and use them to guide judgment Justify any automatic response as a basis for judgment

28 DO: Be suspicious of automatic responses - suppress, change or modify explicit judgment Try to override automatic reactions in favor of egalitarian explicit responses

29 Over Time Practice replacing bias with judgments that conform to explicit values Develop strong motivation to avoid prejudice Practicing equalitarian responses will reduce implicit preference to high status groups Change mindset followed by behavioral change Be willing to reject automatic preference

30 What can I do about an automatic preference that I would rather not have?
Good news is that preferences are malleable Seek experiences that can undo or reverse the patterns of experience that created it Read or see information that opposes the implicit preference Interact with people that provide experience that counter the preference Remain alert to the implicit preference and recognize that it may intrude into your judgments and actions Embark on consciously planned actions to compensate for know implicit preferences

31 See the Squirrel and the Swan

32 References Adams, John S. “Federal judge admits he sent anti-Obama, racist ” USA TODAY March 1, 2012 Web March 2012 Couch, Aaron. "Implicit attitudes: How children develop biases about race." June 27, 2007 Web. Aug. 2011 Diaz, Luis J. and Dunican Jr., Patrick C.. "Ending the Revolving Door Syndrome in Law." Seton Hall Law Review Vol. 41: , 2011 “Explicit Evidence on the Import of Implicit Attitudes: The IAT and Immigration Policy Judgments,” Polit. Behav. (2010) 32: Fisher, Anne. "Piercing the 'bamboo ceiling'" CNN Money, Aug. 22, 2005 Web. Sept. 2011 Foley, Ryan J. “Denied jobs, blacks in Iowa test new bias theory” The Associated Press, Feb. 17, 2012 Web. March 2012 Gordon, Rebekka Althouse, Ph.D. "The relationship between valuing diversity and implicit racial bias: A construct validation study." ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Web. Aug. 2011

33 Hamermesh, Daniel S. "Ugly. You May Have a Case" newyorktimes
Hamermesh, Daniel S. "Ugly? You May Have a Case" The New York Times, Aug. 27, Web. Sept. 2011 "Hiring." American Values Institute, n.d. Web. Sept. 2011 ILLP Review 2011: The State of Diversity and Inclusion in the Legal Profession Jolls, Christine and Sunstein, Cass R.. "The Law of Implicit Bias." California Law Review Vol. 94: , 2006 Kang, Jerry, Dasgupta, Nilanjan, Yogeeswaran, Kumar and Blasi, Gary L., "Are Ideal Litigators White? Measuring the Myth of Colorblindness." UCLA School of Law Research Paper No ; CELS 2009 Annual Conference on Empirical Legal Studies Paper. July 31, Available at SSRN: Kang, Jerry. "Comment on Uhlmann, Poehlman, and Nosek." Correlates and Causes of Ideology pp , Aug. 2011, n.p. Kang, Jerry. "Implicit Bias – A Primer for Courts." National Center for State Courts; Prepared for the National Campaign to Ensure the Racial and Ethnic Fairness of America's State Courts. Aug. 2009

34 Levs, Melanie Lasoff. "Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Asian American General Counsel Rise in the Legal Ranks." Diversity & The Bar Minority Corporate Counsel Association, May/June Web. Sept. 2011 Norris, Michele and Block, Melissa. "Looking at the 'Bamboo Ceiling'" National Public Radio, July 5, Web. Sept. 2011 Parks, Gregory Scott. "Toward a Critical Race Realism." Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy Vol.17: , 2008 Parks, Gregory S., Rachlinski, Jeffrey J. and Epstein, Richard A., "Implicit Bias, Election '08, and the Myth of a Post-Racial America." Florida State University Law Review Vol. 37: , 2010 Parks, Gregory S., Rachlinski, Jeffrey J. and Epstein, Richard A., "Implicit Race Bias and the 2008 Presidential Election: Much Ado About Nothing?" 157. University of Pennsylvania Law Review. PENNumbra Vol. 157: , 2009 Prost, Marlene. "Hitting the Bamboo Curtain." Human Resource Executive Online, Aug. 3, Web. Sept. 2011 “Proven Strategies for Addressing Unconscious Bias in the Workplace” CDO Insights 14, Aug. 2008

35 Rachlinski, Jeffrey J. , Johnson, Sheri Lynn, Wistrich, Andrew J
Rachlinski, Jeffrey J., Johnson, Sheri Lynn, Wistrich, Andrew J. and Guthrie, Chris “Doe Vol. 84s Unconscious Bias Affect Trial Judges?” Notre Dame Law Review Vol. 84: , 2009 Ruttlmann, Jacqueline. "Breaking Through the 'Bamboo Ceiling' for Asian American Scientists." American Association for the Advancement of Science, n.d. Web. Sept. 2011 Scharf, Stephanie A. and Flom, Barbara M. "Report of the Fifth Annual National Survey on Retention and Promotion of Women in Law Firms." The NAWL Foundation and the National Association of Women Lawyers (NAWL), October 2010 Schmidt, Kathleen and Nosek, Brian A. "Implicit (and explicit) racial attitudes barely changed during Barack Obama's presidential campaign and early presidency." Running Ahead: Obama Barely Changed Racial Attitudes. n.d. n.p. Steele, Claudette M. Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us, 2010 "Test Yourself for Hidden Bias." Southern Poverty Law Center, n.d. Web. Aug. 2011

36 The Value of Diversity in Law Firms and The Path to Partnership for Asian Americans, The National Asian Pacific Bar Association Uhlmann, Eric Luis, Poehlman, T. Andrew, and Nosek, Brian A. "Automatic Associations: Personal Attitudes or Cultural Knowledge?" Running Ahead: Person and Culture. n.d. n.p. Weng, Garner. "Racial Bias in Law Practice." California Lawyer Jan. 2003: 37-40 "Why Do They Need to Tell Me?" Unconscious Bias Citi Workshop, Oct. 6, 2010 Yang, Wesley. "Paper Tigers: What happens to all the Asian-American overachievers when the test-taking ends?" New York Magazine, May 8, 2011 Web. Sept. 2011

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