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World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era

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1 World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era
Chapter 12 The New Imperialism 1800–1914 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 World History: Connection to Today, Modern Era
Chapter 12: The New Imperialism 1800–1914 Section 1: A Western-Dominated World Section 2: The Partition of Africa Section 3: European Challenges to the Muslim World Section 4: The British Take Over India Section 5: China and the New Imperialism Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

3 A Western-Dominated World
1 A Western-Dominated World What were the causes of the “new imperialism”? Why was western imperialism so successful? How did governments rule their empires?

4 1 The New Imperialism Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. Between 1500 and 1800, European states won empires around the world. However, Europe had little influence on the lives of the people of these conquered lands. By the 1800s, Europe had gained considerable power. Encouraged by their new economic and military strength, Europeans embarked on a path of aggressive expansion that today’s historians call the “new imperialism.”

5 Causes of Imperialism ECONOMIC INTERESTS
1 ECONOMIC INTERESTS POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTS Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources. Manufacturers hoped for new markets for factory goods. Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe’s growing population. Merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world. Western leaders were motivated by nationalism. HUMANITARIAN GOALS SOCIAL DARWINISM Many westerners felt concern for their “little brothers” overseas. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials believed they had a duty to spread western civilization. Many westerners viewed European races as superior to all others. They saw imperial conquest as nature’s way of improving the human species.

6 The Successes of Imperialism
1 The Successes of Imperialism In just a few decades, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world. Western imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons: While European nations had grown stronger in the 1800s, several older civilizations were in decline. Europeans had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies. Europeans had superior technology and medical knowledge.

1 Forms of Imperial Rule The new imperialism took several forms. SPHERES OF INFLUENCE COLONIES PROTECTORATES The French practiced direct rule, sending officials to administer their colonies. The British practiced on indirect rule, using local rulers to govern their colonies. In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers. A protectorate cost less to run than a colony and usually did not require a large military presence. A sphere of influence is an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. The United States claimed Latin America as its sphere of influence.

8 The Partition of Africa
2 The Partition of Africa What forces were shaping Africa in the early 1800s? How did European contact with Africa increase? How did Leopold II start a scramble for colonies? How did Africans resist imperialism?

2 Africa in the Early 1800s To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early 1800s, before the scramble for colonies began. NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA Since long before 1800, the region had close ties to the Muslim world. In the early 1800s, much of the region remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman empire. On the grasslands, Islamic leaders preached jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify Islam. In the forest regions, the Asante controlled smaller states. These smaller tributary states were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. SOUTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region. Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on.

10 European Contacts Increased
2 From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and disease prevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa. Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s. EXPLORERS MISSIONARIES Explorers were fascinated by African geography but had little understanding of the people they met. Catholic and Protestant missionaries sought to win people to Christianity. Most took a paternalistic view of Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions in favor of western civilization.

11 A Scramble for Colonies
2 King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders. King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scramble among other European nations. Before long, Britain, France, and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region. At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed on how they could claim African territory without fighting amongst themselves. European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent.

12 Imperialism in Africa to 1914
2 Imperialism in Africa to 1914

13 2 African Resistance Europeans met armed resistance across the continent. Algerians battled the French for years. The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British. East Africans fought wars against the Germans. In Ethiopia, King Menelik II modernized his country. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.

14 European Challenges to the Muslim World
3 European Challenges to the Muslim World What were sources of stress in the Muslim world? What problems did the Ottoman empire face? How did Egypt seek to modernize? Why were European powers interested in Iran?

15 What Were Sources of Stress in the Muslim World?
3 By the 1700s, all three Muslim empires were in decline. In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements sprang up across the Muslim world. Most stressed religious piety and strict rules of behavior. The old Muslim empires faced western imperialism.

16 3 The Ottoman Empire By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges. Ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, had increased their power. As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire. European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control. Attempts at westernization by several Ottoman rulers increased tensions. Many officials objected to changes that were inspired by foreign cultures. A reform group called the Young Turks overthrew the sultan. Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire.

17 The Modernization of Egypt
3 The Modernization of Egypt Called the “father of modern Egypt,” Muhammad Ali introduced political and economic reforms. Before he died in 1849, he had set Egypt on the road to becoming a major Middle Eastern power. During his reign, Muhammad Ali: improved tax collection reorganized the landholding system backed large irrigation projects to increase farm output expanded cotton production and encouraged local industry, thereby increasing Egyptian participation in world trade brought in western military experts to modernize the army conquered Arabia, Syria, and Sudan

18 Iran and the European Powers
3 Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India. For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence, Russia in the north and Britain in the south. The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region. Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant them concessions, or special economic rights given to foreign powers.

19 The British Take Over India
4 The British Take Over India What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion? How did British rule affect India? How did Indians view western culture? What were the origins of Indian nationalism?

20 The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects
4 CAUSES EFFECTS The British East India Company: required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas, which violated Hindu religious law passed a law allowing Hindu widows to marry, which undermined Hindu beliefs ordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their rifles, which violated both Hindu and Muslim religious law The sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. The British took terrible revenge, slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians. Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust. The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces.

21 4 British Colonial Rule After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India. The British built roads and an impressive railroad network. The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry. Britain transformed Indian agriculture. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines. The British revised the Indian legal system. British rule brought peace and order to the countryside. Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.

22 Imperialism in India to 1858
4 Imperialism in India to 1858

23 Different Views on Culture
4 Different Views on Culture During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDES BRITISH ATTITUDES Some educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress. Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures. Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage.

24 Indian Nationalism 4 The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western-style modernization. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state.

25 China and the New Imperialism
5 China and the New Imperialism What trade rights did westerners seek in China? What internal problems did Chinese reformers try to resolve? How did the Qing dynasty come to an end?

26 5 The Trade Issue Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported. Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them. In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers. China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. The British gained the island of Hong Kong. China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality.

27 Internal Problems By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.
5 Internal Problems By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.

28 Reform Efforts 5 In the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China. The movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it. After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guang Xu launched the Hundred Days of Reform. Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and the emperor was imprisoned.

29 Imperialism in China to 1914
5 Imperialism in China to 1914

30 Fall of the Qing Dynasty
5 As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China. In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers. Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms. Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic. When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos. In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled. Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.

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