Presentation on theme: "Course and Conduct of WWI reference Chapter 23 How was WWI different from earlier wars?"— Presentation transcript:
Course and Conduct of WWI reference Chapter 23 How was WWI different from earlier wars?
Selective Service Act ,000 volunteer army draft men million register 2.8 million drafted government campaign to encourage enlistment
AEF fights in Europe American Expeditionary Force 2 million troops in Europe by summer of Most troops fought under American command 1 st US troops in Europe
African-Americans have a more prominent role segregated limited training for black officers 369 th Regiment
New Technologies change the nature and consequences of war New technologies + Old tactics = Devastation
Artillery machine guns howitzers –Big Berthas Use of long-range artillery encourages trench warfare
“Big Bertha” Krupps pictures
Machine Gun 600 bullets per minute
Airplanes and Zeppelins
Battleships and U-boats By early 1914 the Royal Navy had 18 modern dreadnoughts (6 more under construction), 10 battlecruisers, 20 town cruisers, 15 scout cruisers, 200 destroyers, 29 battleships (pre-dreadnought design) and 150 cruisers built before 1907.dreadnoughtsbattlecruiserstown cruisersscout cruisersdestroyersbattleshipscruisers
War At Sea
Travelers intending to embark on Atlantic voyages are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her Allies and Great Britain and her Allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that in accordance with the formal notice given by the Imperial German Government vessels flying the flag of Great Britain or her Allies are liable to destruction in those waters, and that travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her Allies do so at their own risk." Imperial German Embassy, Washington, D.C., April 22, 1915
Poison gas phosgene mustard chlorine
Trench Warfare see diagram p.297
Key Events Before US involvement Series of brutal and, ultimately, futile battles –Battle of the Somme –60,000 casualties in a day –success measured in inches/feet –Stalemate continues Germany renews unrestricted submarine warfare –Sinks supply ship SS Illinois
Important Event as US arrives to enter the war The Russian Revolution –Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks assume power and sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, peace with Germany. (Dec.-Mar. 1918) –Freed Germany from 2-front war US troops arrive in the nick if time!US troops arrive in the nick if time!
Germany’s renewal of unrestricted sub warfare targets American ships in the war zone
Key events following US entry By 1918, all sides were planning offensives German offensive is stalled by mid-Spring Effective control of the seas by Britain and U.S. depletes German resources U.S. and Britain employ convoys against u-boats 1 st American offensives May 1918 American forces join Brits/French at 2 nd Battle of Marne by summer 1918
Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins Sept million American soldiers participate 6 weeks push Germans back to their last defensive position capture control of the Sedan Railroad –supplies more than half of all materials to German front –See map in text p. 300 Convinces Germany to agree to a truce
Armistice Fall 1918, Central powers begin to collapse/surrender Kaiser Wilhelm (Germany) is overthrown- new republic formed. New government signed an armistice November 11, a.m. “Armistice Day”
10 million soldiers killed/20 million wounded 10 million civilian deaths 110,000 American deaths Estimated cost: $185 billion
Your task Using chart p. 300 “Estimated WWI Casualties” –Create a bar graph of the chart info. Following your spiral notes, write a 1 paragraph response to the essential question: How was World War I different from previous wars?
Champs d'Honneur Ernest Hemingway Soldiers never do die well; Crosses mark the places- Wooden Crosses where they fell, Stuck above their faces. Soldiers pitch and cough and twitch- All the world roars red and black; Soldiers smother in a ditch, Choking through the whole attack.
The Home Front How did Americans on the home front support or oppose the war?
Mobilization The Draft – 9 million registered –3 million –Volunteers – 2 million Increased production –fuel, ships, weapons, food –governing boards oversee the economy
“The Great Migration” Pull factor =Job opportunities in the factories of the North Push Factor = poverty, Jim Crow, lynching terrorism
total war Propaganda Campaigns (important element of total war theory) CPI (Committee on Public Information) George Creel “4-Minute Men”
Financing the War Increased the number of people paying the new income tax –437,000 in 1917 –4.4 million in 1918 Liberty Bond Drives Bond = loan with interest
Opposition to the War Many women –Jeanette Rankin (1 st woman rep. in Congress) “You can no more win a war than you can win an earthquake.” Women’s Peace Party Quakers/Pacifists Socialists Opponents of big business –“command of gold” –profiteering Conscientious objectors
The Suppression of Dissent Espionage Act 1917 crime to interfere with the draft, “obstruct…the war effort” –Schenck v. US (1919) Sedition Act 1918 Restricts freedom of speech –“disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive” of government Other restrictions on speech and action –2,000 prosecutions including Eugene Debs (10 years) Public persecution of Germans