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Course and Conduct of WWI reference Chapter 23

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1 Course and Conduct of WWI reference Chapter 23
How was WWI different from earlier wars?

2 Selective Service Act - 1917
100,000 volunteer army draft men 21-30 24 million register 2.8 million drafted government campaign to encourage enlistment

3 AEF fights in Europe American Expeditionary Force
2 million troops in Europe by summer of 1918. Most troops fought under American command 1st US troops in Europe


5 African-Americans have a more prominent role
segregated limited training for black officers 369th Regiment When the USA declared war in April 1917, Wilson sent the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) under the command of General John Pershing to the Western Front. The Selective Service Act, drafted by Brigadier General Hugh Johnson, was quickly passed by Congress. The law authorized President Woodrow Wilson to raise a volunteer infantry force of not more than four divisions. All males between the ages of 21 and 30 were required to register for military service. Approximately 2,291,000 black Americans volunteered and 367,000 of them were drafted. Most of these joined the army. The marines and the United States Air Service refused to take black volunteers and they were only offered menial tasks in the United States Navy. Three-quarters of those who served in the army overseas worked as cooks, orderlies and truck drivers. The training camps were segregated and black regiments tended to have white officers. About 200,000 Afro-Americans served in the US Army in Europe, but only 42,000 were classified as combat troops. Completely segregated, they fought with the French Army during the war. The first black soldiers to arrive in Europe to arrive in Europe were those of the 369th Regiment from New York. The regiment quickly built up a reputation as excellent soldiers and were nicknamed the Hell Fighters by the German Army. The 369th were the first Allied regiment to break through the German lines to reach the Rhine. During 191 days of fighting, the regiment did not have a man captured; nor did it lose an inch of ground by retreating. The military leaders in France were so impressed with the way they fought at the Battle of Maison-en-Champagne that they gave the regiment the Croix de Guerre medal.

6 New Technologies change the nature and consequences of war
New technologies + Old tactics = Devastation

7 Artillery machine guns howitzers Use of long-range
Big Berthas Use of long-range artillery encourages trench warfare

8 “Big Bertha” pictures Krupps
demolishing the fortress towns of Liege and Namur in August 1914, the war's first month (and subsequently as Antwerp). shells weighed 820kg each, were shipped in their constituent parts by tractor to their destination point where they were once again reassembled by a huge crew of as many as 1,000 men. range of 15km Krupps

9 Machine Gun 600 bullets per minute

10 Airplanes and Zeppelins
On the morning of January 19th 1915 two German Zeppelin airships, the L3 and L4 took off from Fuhlsbüttel in Germany. Both airships carried 30 hours of fuel, 8 bombs and 25 incendiary devices. They had been given permission by the Emperor Wilhelm II to attack military and industrial buildings. The Emperor had forbidden an attack on London due to concern for the Royal family to whom he was related. The two German Zeppelin airships crossed the Norfolk coastline at around 8.30pm. Having crossed the coast the L3 turned north and the L4 south. The incendiary bombs were dropped to enable the pilots to navigate to their chosen locations Great Yarmouth and Kings Lynn where they dropped their bombs. A total of nine people were killed and some buildings were damaged. But the effect of the raid on a population who were used to battles being fought by soldiers on the battlefield was immense. Morale dropped and people feared further raids and believed that a German invasion would follow. Further raids were carried out on coastal towns and London during 1915 and The silent airships arrived without warning and with no purpose built shelters people hid in cellars or under tables. There were a total of 52 Zeppelin raids on Britain claiming the lives of more than 500 people. Although artillery guns were used against the airships they had little effect. In May 1916 fighter planes armed with incendiary bullets were used to attack the Zeppelins. The incendiary bullets pierced the Zeppelins and ignited the hydrogen gas they were filled with. Once alight the airships fell to the ground. It was the beginning of the end of the raids.

11 Battleships and U-boats
By early 1914 the Royal Navy had 18 modern dreadnoughts (6 more under construction), 10 battlecruisers, 20 town cruisers, 15 scout cruisers, 200 destroyers, 29 battleships (pre-dreadnought design) and 150 cruisers built before 1907.


13 War At Sea

14 Travelers intending to embark on Atlantic voyages are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her Allies and Great Britain and her Allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that in accordance with the formal notice given by the Imperial German Government vessels flying the flag of Great Britain or her Allies are liable to destruction in those waters, and that travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her Allies do so at their own risk." Imperial German Embassy, Washington, D.C., April 22, 1915

15 Sea Mines The Northern Barrage, chiefly laid by the U.S. Navy, formed an attempt by the Allies in mid-1918 to seal up the northern exits of the North Sea to enemy (invariably German) U-boats.  This was to be achieved by the laying of vast minefields stretching from the Orkney Islands to the Norwegian coast. Meanwhile the German Navy was well aware of the Allies' efforts in spite of unsuccessful attempts to conceal the operation.  Worse still, the Barrage, once completed, proved ineffective.  German U-boats continued to pierce the Allied defences and actually rose to approximately 40 per month towards the close of the war.  A mere three German U-boats were trapped by the minefield. 70,000 mines laid in the NB

16 Tank

17 Improved Flamethrowers
The smaller, lighter Flammenwerfer (the Kleinflammenwerfer) was designed for portable use, carried by a single man.  Using pressurised air and carbon dioxide or nitrogen it belched forth a stream of burning oil for as much as 18 metres. Fielder's second, larger model (the Grossflammenwerfer), worked along the same lines but was not suitable for transport by a single person, but whose maximum range was twice that of the smaller model; it could also sustain flames for a (then) impressive forty seconds, although it was decidedly expensive in its use of fuel. Having tested the Flammenwerfer in 1900 the German army deployed it for use in three specialist battalions from 1911 onwards. It was put to initial wartime use against the French in the south-eastern sector of the Western Front from October 1914, although its use was sporadic and went largely unreported. The effect of the dangerous nature of the surprise attack proved terrifying to the British opposition, although their line, initially pushed back, was stabilised later the same night. In two days of severe fighting the British lost 31 officers and 751 other ranks during the attack. With the success of the Hooge attack, at least so far as the Flammenwerfer was concerned, the German army adopted the device on a widespread basis across all fronts of battle. 

18 Poison gas phosgene mustard chlorine First Use by the French
Although it is popularly believed that the German army was the first to use gas it was in fact initially deployed by the French.  In the first month of the war, August 1914, they fired tear-gas grenades (xylyl bromide) against the Germans.  Nevertheless the German army was the first to give serious study to the development of chemical weapons and the first to use it on a large scale. first poison gas however - in this instance, chlorine - came on 22 April 1915, at the start of the Second Battle of Ypres. The Germans' use of chlorine gas provoked immediate widespread condemnation, and certainly damaged German relations with the neutral powers, including the U.S.  The gas attacks were placed to rapid propaganda use by the British although they planned to respond in kind. experiments were undertaken to deliver the gas payload in artillery shells.  This provided the additional benefits of increasing the target range as well as the variety of gases released. Phosgene as a weapon was more potent than chlorine in that while the latter was potentially deadly it caused the victim to violently cough and choke. Phosgene caused much less coughing with the result that more of it was inhaled; it was consequently adopted by both German and Allied armies.  Phosgene often had a delayed effect; apparently healthy soldiers were taken down with phosgene gas poisoning up to 48 hours after inhalation. The so-called "white star" mixture of phosgene and chlorine was commonly used on the Somme: the chlorine content supplied the necessary vapour with which to carry the phosgene. Germany unveiled an enhanced form of gas weaponry against the Russians at Riga in September 1917: mustard gas (or Yperite) contained in artillery shells. Mustard gas, an almost odourless chemical, was distinguished by the serious blisters it caused both internally and externally, brought on several hours after exposure.  Protection against mustard gas proved more difficult than against either chlorine or phosgene gas. The use of mustard gas - sometimes referred to as Yperite - also proved to have mixed benefits.  While inflicting serious injury upon the enemy the chemical remained potent in soil for weeks after release: making capture of infected trenches a dangerous undertaking. By 1918 soldiers on both sides were far better prepared to meet the ever-present threat of a gas attack.  Filter respirators (using charcoal or antidote chemicals) were the norm and proved highly effective, although working in a trench while wearing such respirators generally proved difficult and tiring. With the Armistice, such was the horror and disgust at the wartime use of poison gases that its use was outlawed in a ban that is, at least nominally, still in force today. +95,000 deaths attributed to gas

19 Trench Warfare see diagram p.297

20 Key Events Before US involvement
Series of brutal and, ultimately, futile battles Battle of the Somme 60,000 casualties in a day success measured in inches/feet Stalemate continues Germany renews unrestricted submarine warfare Sinks supply ship SS Illinois

21 Important Event as US arrives to enter the war
The Russian Revolution Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks assume power and sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, peace with Germany. (Dec.-Mar. 1918) Freed Germany from 2-front war US troops arrive in the nick if time!



24 Germany’s renewal of unrestricted sub warfare targets American ships in the war zone

25 Key events following US entry
By 1918, all sides were planning offensives German offensive is stalled by mid-Spring Effective control of the seas by Britain and U.S. depletes German resources U.S. and Britain employ convoys against u-boats 1st American offensives May 1918 American forces join Brits/French at 2nd Battle of Marne by summer 1918


27 Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins Sept. 1918
1 million American soldiers participate 6 weeks push Germans back to their last defensive position capture control of the Sedan Railroad supplies more than half of all materials to German front See map in text p. 300 Convinces Germany to agree to a truce

28 Armistice Fall 1918, Central powers begin to collapse/surrender
Kaiser Wilhelm (Germany) is overthrown-new republic formed. New government signed an armistice November 11, a.m. “Armistice Day”

29 10 million soldiers killed/20 million wounded
10 million civilian deaths 110,000 American deaths Estimated cost: $185 billion

30 Your task Using chart p. 300 “Estimated WWI Casualties”
Create a bar graph of the chart info. Following your spiral notes, write a 1 paragraph response to the essential question: How was World War I different from previous wars?

31 Champs d'Honneur Ernest Hemingway
Soldiers never do die well; Crosses mark the places- Wooden Crosses where they fell, Stuck above their faces. Soldiers pitch and cough and twitch- All the world roars red and black; Soldiers smother in a ditch, Choking through the whole attack.

32 How did Americans on the home front support or oppose the war?

33 Mobilization The Draft – 9 million registered Increased production
Volunteers – 2 million Increased production fuel, ships, weapons, food governing boards oversee the economy

34 “The Great Migration” Pull factor =Job opportunities in the factories of the North Push Factor = poverty, Jim Crow, lynching terrorism

35 Propaganda Campaigns (important element of total war theory)
CPI (Committee on Public Information) George Creel “4-Minute Men”

36 Financing the War Increased the number of people paying the new income tax 437,000 in 1917 4.4 million in 1918 Liberty Bond Drives Bond = loan with interest

37 Opposition to the War Many women Quakers/Pacifists Socialists
Jeanette Rankin (1st woman rep. in Congress) “You can no more win a war than you can win an earthquake.” Women’s Peace Party Quakers/Pacifists Socialists Opponents of big business “command of gold” profiteering Conscientious objectors

38 The Suppression of Dissent
Espionage Act 1917 crime to interfere with the draft, “obstruct…the war effort” Schenck v. US (1919) Sedition Act 1918 Restricts freedom of speech “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive” of government Other restrictions on speech and action 2,000 prosecutions including Eugene Debs (10 years) Public persecution of Germans "Espionage Act of 1917." Much of the act simply served to supersede existing espionage laws. Sections of the act covered the following: vessels in ports of the United States, interference with foreign commerce by violent means, seizure of arms and other articles intended for export, enforcement of neutrality, passports, counterfeiting government seals, and search warrants. The part of the act dealing specifically with espionage contained standard clauses criminalizing "obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information to be obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States" or obtaining such things as code books, signal books, sketches, photographs, photographic negatives, and blue prints with the intention of passing them on to the enemy. "when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States." The act said such individuals would "be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years or both." The act also declared that any mailing that violated the above provision of the act was illegal, and it also banned any mailings advocating or urging TREASON, insurrection, or forcible resistance to any law of the United States. Finally, the act declared it unlawful for any person in time of war to publish any information that the president, in his judgment, declared to be "of such character that it is or might be useful to the enemy." The 1918 amendment to the act, also called the Sedition Act, went further. The act made it illegal to do the following: "To make or convey false reports, or false statements, or say or do anything except by way of bona fide and not disloyal advice to an investor … with intent to obstruct the sale by the United States of bonds … or the making of loans by or to the United States, or whoever, when the United States is at war"; To "cause … or incite … insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States"; To "utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the Constitution of the United States, or the military or naval forces of the United States, or the flag … or the uniform of the Army or Navy of the United States, or any language intended to bring the form of government … or the Constitution … or the military or naval forces … or the flag … of the United States into contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute"; To "willfully display the flag of a foreign enemy"; To "urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production in this country of any thing or things … necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war." The passage of the Espionage Act and the 1918 ama href="">Espionage Act of (1917) - Further Readings</a>endment engineered much argument.

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