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Types of Sentences California Content Standards: WC 8.1.1 – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Sentences California Content Standards: WC 8.1.1 – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Sentences California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.

2 Kinds of Sentences A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. There are 4 types of sentences.  Declarative Sentence – Makes a statement and ends with a period.  Interrogative Sentence – Asks a question and ends with a question mark.  Imperative Sentence – Makes a command or a request and ends with a period.  Exclamatory Sentence – Expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

3 Kinds of Sentences Example 1: Declarative Sentences It would be prudent to buckle your seatbelt. Mr. Guillen is a conscientious teacher. Example 2: Interrogative Sentences What time will you embark on your trip? Do you think the Dodger loss will rankle Mr. Shipes?

4 Kinds of Sentences Example 3: Imperative Sentences Mary, find us a serene spot on the beach. Do your best work and don’t lackadaisical about it. Example 4: Exclamatory Sentences You should have seen the teacher rebuke the audacious student at the assembly today! Bobby got into big trouble for trying to pilfer Mr. Yang’s Snickers bars!

5 Kinds of Sentences Check for Understanding Choose the correct sentence type. A.Declarative Sentence B.Interrogative Sentence C.Imperative Sentence D.Exclamatory Sentence Answer: C

6 Kinds of Sentences Check for Understanding Did you see how slovenly she was dressed today? A.Declarative Sentence B.Interrogative Sentence C.Imperative Sentence D.Exclamatory Sentence Answer: B

7 Kinds of Sentences Check for Understanding The principal had to confiscate her phone! A.Declarative Sentence B.Interrogative Sentence C.Imperative Sentence D.Exclamatory Sentence Answer: D

8 Kinds of Sentences Check for Understanding I had an inkling the Dodgers would win because the Cardinals made a profusion of errors. A.Declarative Sentence B.Interrogative Sentence C.Imperative Sentence D.Exclamatory Sentence Answer: A

9 Kinds of Sentences Guided Practice  Do numbers 1 through 4 on Page 1 – Workbook Plus  Raise your hand  Wait for stamp Independent Practice  Do numbers 5 through 16 on Page 1  If you finish early, do the Challenge exercise on Page 2

10 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.

11 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates In order to express a complete thought, a sentence must have two parts, a subject and a predicate.  The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.  The predicate tells what the subject is, does, has, or feels.  The complete subject includes a noun or a pronoun and the words and phrases that describe it.  The complete predicate contains a verb or a verb phrase and all the words that complete its meaning.

12 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates Examples: SubjectPredicate Fishswim. Artistsdepict wonderful landscapes. The audacious sailorswill mutiny against the captain.

13 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates Modeling Draw a line between the complete subject and the complete predicate. The teacher will confiscate all calculators before the test. The students enjoyed the serene park.

14 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates Check for Understanding Draw a line between the complete subject and the complete predicate. 1.The mutiny occurred on the open sea. 2.The prudent student packed a nutritious lunch. 3.The conscientious teacher will provide a profusion of questions.

15 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates Guided Practice Do numbers 1 and 2 on Page 3. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Do numbers 3 through 10 on Page 3. If you finish early, do the Challenge exercise on Page 4.

16 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.

17 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Input The simple subject is the key word or words in the complete subject. The simple subject tells whom or what the sentence is about and is usually a noun or a pronoun. Examples: The conscientious doctor gave the patient a thorough exam. simple subject The Queen Mary embarked from the port in Liverpool. simple subject

18 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Input The simple predicate is the key word or words in the complete predicate. The simple predicate tells what the subject is, does, has, or feels. The simple predicate is always either a verb or a verb phrase. Examples: The conscientious doctor gave the patient a thorough exam. simple predicate The Queen Mary embarked from the port in Liverpool. simple predicate

19 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Modeling Underline the simple subject in the following sentences. 1.President Obama rebuked Congress for the budget crisis. President Obama rebuked Congress for the budget crisis. 2.The pitcher was rankled by his team’s loss on Friday night. The pitcher was rankled by his team’s loss on Friday night.

20 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Modeling Underline the simple predicate in the following sentences. 1.President Obama rebuked Congress for the budget crisis. President Obama rebuked Congress for the budget crisis. 2.The pitcher was rankled by his team’s loss on Friday night. The pitcher was rankled by his team’s loss on Friday night.

21 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Check for Understanding Underline the simple subject in the following sentences. 1.The serene beach was beautiful at sunset. The serene beach was beautiful at sunset. 2.The audacious crew started a mutiny against the captain. The audacious crew started a mutiny against the captain.

22 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Check for Understanding Underline the simple predicate in the following sentences. 1.The serene beach was beautiful at sunset. The serene beach was beautiful at sunset. 2.The audacious crew started a mutiny against the captain. The audacious crew started a mutiny against the captain.

23 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates Guided Practice Do numbers 1 through 4 on Page 5 – Workbook Plus. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Complete numbers 5 through 18 on Page 5. If you finish early, complete the Challenge exercise on Page 6.

24 Finding the Subject California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.

25 Finding the Subject Input/Modeling  Sentences are usually written in natural order: the subject comes before the predicate.  Sometimes sentences are written in inverted order: the subject follows all or part of the complete predicate. Examples of Inverted Order Into the tree flew a bird. Out of the woods came the Mad Hatter. Lying on top of a mushroom was a caterpillar.

26 Finding the Subject Input/Modeling  Whenever you want to find the subject of an inverted sentence, try rearranging the words into their natural order. Examples in Natural Order A bird flew into the tree. The Mad Hatter came out of the woods. A caterpillar was lying on top of a mushroom.

27 Finding the Subject Input/Modeling  Interrogative sentences are usually in inverted order. Examples in Inverted Order Could the caterpillar speak? When would it speak to Alice? Examples in Natural Order The caterpillar could speak. It would speak to Alice when?

28 Finding the Subject Input/Modeling  Most sentences that begin with the introductory word there or here are also in inverted order. Examples in Inverted Order There was a caterpillar near Alice. Here is a butterfly. To find the subject of a sentence beginning with there or here, locate the verb, and ask the question who? or what? about it. What was near Alice? A caterpillar was.

29 Finding the Subject Input/Modeling  Imperative sentences are in natural order, but the subject usually does not appear in the sentence. The subject you is understood. The subject remains you even when the name of the person is used. Examples: (You) Peer through the looking glass. Alice, (you) watch the cat.

30 Finding the Subject Input/Modeling  Some sentences in natural order begin with words other than the subject. Examples: In the book a strange character appears. At the end of the story, Alice awakens. Again, to find the subject, locate the verb first, and ask the question who? or what? about it.

31 Finding the Subject Check for Understanding Write the simple subject of each sentence. 1.On a branch of the tree sat a cat. Simple Subject: Cat 2.There was the March Hare at the party. Simple Subject: March Hare 3.Please lend it to me. Simple Subject: (You)

32 Finding the Subject Guided Practice Do numbers 1 through 3 on Page 7 – Workbook Plus. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Complete numbers 4 through 15 on Page 7 – Workbook Plus. If you finish early, complete the Challenge exercise on Page 8.

33 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.

34 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates Input/Modeling  Two or more simple subjects with the same predicate form a compound subject.  Two or more simple predicates with the same subject form a compound predicate. Examples: Mia and Kamryn are meticulous in their work. compound subject The suspect was interrogated, arrested, and arraigned yesterday. compound predicate

35 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates Input/Modeling  A sentence may also have both a compound subject and a compound predicate.  The parts of a compound subject or of a compound predicate are usually joined by and, but, or or. Example: The captain, the co-captain, or the coach ran and fell. compound subject compound predicate

36 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates Input/Modeling  Sentences in inverted order also may have compound subjects and predicates. Examples: Here are Aaron and Kenshiro. compound subject Were they apprehended and shackled? compound predicate

37 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates Check for Understanding What are the compound subjects and/or the compound predicates in these sentences? 1.Abby and Nicolas have assimilated well in their new class. Abby, Nicolas – compound subject 2.The runner crossed the finish line and grinned. crossed, grinned – compound predicate 3.Phil and Carmen will attend the game and buy souvenirs. Phil, Carmen – compound subject; attend, buy – compound predicate

38 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates Guided Practice Do numbers 1 through 3 on page 9 – Workbook Plus. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Complete numbers 4 through 10 on page 9. Complete Revising Strategies pages 11 and 12 – Workbook Plus.

39 Compound Sentences California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.

40 Compound Sentences Input Simple Sentences  A simple sentence expresses one complete idea. Hurricane Andrew was a major calamity in southern Florida in  A simple sentence can have a compound subject, a compound predicate, or both. Adam, Christopher, and Logan sweltered in the intense heat. (Compound Subject – Adam, Christopher, Logan) The police apprehended the suspect and interrogated him. (Compound Predicate – apprehended, interrogated)

41 Compound Sentences Input Compound Sentences  A compound sentence expresses two or more complete ideas that are related and are equal in importance. If a sentence is compound, it can can always be separated into two or more simple sentences. The Trojan War lasted ten years, and Troy was destroyed.  Connect the simple sentences in a compound sentence with a conjunction, or connecting word, such as and, but, or or. Use a comma between the joined sentences unless the sentences are very short and closely related. Helen was the wife of a Greek king, and Paris, a prince of Troy, kidnapped her. She was freed and he was killed.

42 Compound Sentences Input Compound Sentences  You may also join simple sentences with a semicolon alone. A champion among warriors fought for the Greeks; his name was Achilles. Homer was a Greek poet; he probably lived around 700 B.C.

43 Compound Sentences Modeling Combine the following sentences into a compound sentence. 1.Several centuries later, Homer wrote the Iliad. He also wrote the Odyssey.  Several centuries later, Homer wrote the Iliad, and he also wrote the Odyssey. 2.The Iliad describes three weeks of battle during the Trojan War. Its subject is the rage of Achilles.  The Iliad describes three weeks of battle during the Trojan War; its subject is the rage of Achilles. 3.After the war, Odysseus wants to go home to his wife in Ithaca. First he must travel for ten years.  After the war, Odysseus wants to go home to his wife in Ithaca, but first he must travel for ten years.

44 Compound Sentences Check for Understanding Combine the following sentences into a compound sentence. 1.The goddess Circe tempts Odysseus with luxury. He stays with her one year.  The goddess Circe tempts Odysseus with luxury, and he stays with her one year. 2.The sirens call to him with an offer of knowledge of the future. He has himself tied to his ship’s mast and resists their call.  The sirens call to him with an offer of knowledge of the future, but he has himself tied to his ship’s mast and resists their call.

45 Compound Sentences Guided Practice Do numbers 1 and 5 on page 13. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Complete page 13. Complete Challenge page 14.

46 Conjunctions California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. 4AyjKgz9tKg

47 Conjunctions Input  A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words. A coordinating conjunction connects related words or word groups that have the same function in a sentence. Compound Subject: Carol and Brian have arrived. Compound Predicate: Carol may dance but will not sing. Compound Modifier: The guests are happy yet quiet. Compound Sentences: Ron will sing, for Carol will play piano. Sam will not dance, nor will he juggle. Maria is artistic, so she will decorate.

48 Conjunctions Input Coordinating Conjunctions: andbutornorforyetso Correlative conjunctions join words or word groups. Correlative conjunctions appear in pairs and are more forceful and precise than coordinating conjunctions. Neither Lin nor Tom has arrived. Either the car will start, or Jim will jump-start it. Whether it rains or snows, we will go.

49 Conjunctions Input Correlative Conjunctions either…ornot only…but (also) neither…norwhether…or both…andjust as…so

50 Conjunctions Modeling Identify the conjunctions in these sentences. 1.Anarchy and dissension occurred recently in Egypt. Coordinating conjunction: and 2.Twenty-five years have elapsed since the Dodgers last World Series appearance, but Mr. Shipes is still a dedicated fan. Coordinating conjunction: but 3.Neither Mary nor Judy were in imminent danger. Correlative conjunctions: neither…nor

51 Conjunctions Check for Understanding Identify the conjunctions in these sentences. 1.The quality of her work was meticulous and precise. Coordinating conjunction: and 2.The circus act was quite bizarre, but it was entertaining nontheless. Coordinating conjunction: but 3.Either George or John will play lead guitar. Correlative conjunctions: either…or

52 Conjunctions Guided Practice Do numbers 1 and 2 on page 15. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Complete page 15. Complete Challenge page 16.

53 Complex Sentences California Content Standards: WC – Sentence Structure: Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style. WC – Sentence Structure: Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.

54 Complex Sentences Input  A complex sentence is made of 2 parts: 1.An independent clause, or main clause, which expresses a complete thought. 2.A subordinate clause, or dependent clause, which does not express a complete thought and depends on an independent clause to complete its meaning.  Subordinate clauses can be in different places in a complex sentence. Always use a comma after a subordinate clause that begins a sentence. Do not use a comma before a subordinate clause that ends a sentence.  Subordinate clauses often begin with words like although, when, and after. Such words that connect subordinate clauses to independent clauses are called subordinating conjunctions.

55 Common Subordinating Conjunctions afteras long asifunlesswhere althoughas thoughsinceuntilwhereas asbecauseso thatwhenwherever as ifbeforethanwheneverwhile

56 Complex Sentences Modeling Example 1: Jose stayed up late last night because it was his birthday. Independent clause: Jose stayed up late last night. Subordinate clause: because it was his birthday Notice: “because it was his birthday” is not a sentence!

57 Complex Sentences Modeling Example 2: Before he did his homework, Jose had a snack. Independent clause: Jose had a snack. Subordinate clause: before he did his homework Notice: When a subordinate clause begins the complex sentence, it is followed by a comma.

58 Complex Sentences Modeling Example 3: Since he didn’t show his work, Jose got a homework ticket. Jose got a homework ticket since he didn’t show his work. Notice: The subordinate clause and the independent clause can be inverted without changing the meaning of the complex sentence.

59 Complex Sentences Modeling Example 4: Combine sentences Jose was rewarded. He got good grades. (after) After he got good grades, Jose was rewarded. Or Jose was rewarded after he got good grades.

60 Complex Sentences Modeling Example 5: Combine sentences He went home. He ate ice cream. (as) As he went home, he ate ice cream. Or He ate ice cream as he went home.

61 Compound-Complex Sentences Input/Modeling A group of short, related sentences can be combined to make a compound-complex sentence. This type of sentence can help organize your writing by linking related information. It also helps you vary sentence length. Example 6: Combine simple sentences into a compound-complex sentence. A lush forest once stood on this land. The area is now desert. It has no living trees. Although a lush forest once stood on this land, the area is now desert, and it has no living trees.

62 Complex Sentences Check for Understanding Combine the following sentences using (before) He went to bed. He brushed his teeth. Before he went to bed, he brushed his teeth. Or He brushed his teeth before he went to bed.

63 Complex Sentences Check for Understanding Combine the following sentences using (until) He couldn’t go outside to play. He finished his homework. Until he finished his homework, he couldn’t go outside to play. Or He couldn’t go outside to play until he finished his homework.

64 Complex Sentences Check for Understanding Combine the following sentences using (since) It was late. He went to bed. Since it was late, he went to bed. Or He went to bed since it was late.

65 Complex Sentences Guided Practice Do numbers 1 and 2 on page 17. Raise your hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Complete page 17. Complete Challenge page 18. Complete Revising Strategies pages 19 and 20.

66 Fragments and Run-ons California Content Standards: WC – Grammar: Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is used.

67 Sentence Fragments Input  A sentence fragment is any word group that does not have both a subject and a predicate or does not express a complete thought.  Most fragments leave the question who? or what? unanswered.  A fragment is corrected by adding a subject or a predicate or by completing a thought. FragmentCorrected Sentence Went to the lake.We went to the lake. But he likes boats.Joe doesn’t row, but he likes boats. After the race.Prizes were awarded after the race.

68 Sentence Fragments Modeling Is each group of words a sentence or a fragment? 1.Canoed on the ocean. No, a sentence needs a subject. For example: They canoed on the ocean. 2.Although it was an important means of transportation. No, a subordinate clause needs an independent clause to complete the thought. For example: Although it was an important means of transportation, the horse and buggy was later replaced by the automobile.

69 Run-on Sentences Input  A run-on sentence consists of two or more sentences that are run together with commas or without any punctuation. Example: Dean looked, he didn’t see the flashlight. He looked again the flashlight had appeared from nowhere.  Correct a run-on sentence in one of three ways. 1.Divide it into separate sentences by using end punctuation and a capital letter. Dean looked. He didn’t see the flashlight. 2.Rewrite it as a compound sentence, using a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Dean looked, but he didn’t see the flashlight.

70 Run-on Sentences Input 3.Rewrite it as a complex sentence, using a subordinate conjunction. Although Dean looked, he didn’t see the flashlight. When he looked again, the flashlight had appeared from nowhere. Modeling Correct the following run-ons. 1.Mimi stood up on the ice for the first time she felt uneasy. As Mimi stood up on the ice for the first time, she felt uneasy. Mimi stood up on the ice for the first time. She felt uneasy. Mimi stood up on the ice for the first time, and she felt uneasy.

71 Run-on Sentences Modeling Correct the following run-ons. 2.She felt nervous, she didn’t fall. Although she felt nervous, she didn’t fall. She felt nervous, but she didn’t fall. Notice, I did not use: She felt nervous. She didn’t fall. This is choppy writing, and it should be avoided.

72 Run-on Sentences Check for Understanding Correct the following fragments. 1.The sport of rowing. Example: The sport of rowing is fun. 2.When a team prepares for a race. Example: When a team prepares for a race, they usually perform better. Correct the following run-on. 1.LaToya would be there to help her they were good friends. Example: LaToya would be there to help her because they were good friends. Or Since they were good friends, LaToya would be there to help her.

73 Run-on Sentences Guided Practice Correct the first sentence on page 21. Raise you hand. Wait for a stamp. Independent Practice Finish editing the paragraph on page 21 and be ready to share your revised paragraph.


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