Presentation on theme: "Who Will Reengineer? (The People). 2 Intro Companies do not reengineer processes; People do. How do organization select and organize the people who actually."— Presentation transcript:
2 Intro Companies do not reengineer processes; People do. How do organization select and organize the people who actually do the reengineering is key to its success Five key roles emerge: Leader Process Owner Reengineering Team Steering Committee Reengineering czar
3 Key Roles Leader - a senior executive who authorizes and motivates the overall reengineering effort Process Owner – manager with responsibility for a specific process and the reengineering effort focused on it Reengineering Team – group dedicated to reengineering of a particular process, who diagnose the existing process and oversees its redesign and implementation
4 Key Roles… Steering Committee – policy making body of senior managers who develop the organization’s overall reengineering strategy and monitor its progress Reengineering Czar – individual responsible for developing reengineering techniques and tools within the organization and for achieving synergy across the organization's separate reengineering projects
5 Key Roles… In an ideal world, the relationship among these is as follows: The leader appoints the process owner, who convenes a reengineering team to reengineer the process, with the assistance from the czar and under the auspices of the steering committee.
6 Leader The reengineering leader makes reengineering happen. This is a senior executive with enough clout to cause an organization to turn itself inside out and upside down and to persuade people to accept the radical disruptions that reengineering brings. Without a leader, an organization can do some "paper studies," can even come up with new process design concepts; but absent a leader, no reengineering will actually happen. Even if it gets started, a leaderless reengineering effort will run out of steam or hit the wall by the time it is ready to implement.
7 Leader The leader's primary role is to act as visionary and motivator. By fashioning and articulating a vision of the kind of organization that he or she wants to create, the leader invests everyone in the company with a purpose and a sense of mission. The leader must make clear to everyone that reengineering involves a serious effort that will be seen through to its end. From the leader's convictions and enthusiasm, the organization derives the spiritual energy that it needs to embark on a voyage into the unknown.
8 Leader The leader kicks off the organization's reengineering efforts. It is the leader who appoints senior manager as owners of business processes and charges them with achieving breakthroughs in performance. The leader creates the new vision and sets the new standard and, through the owners, induces others to translate that vision into reality.
9 Leader Leaders must create an environment conducive to reengineering. Urging people on isn't enough. Any rational person in a corporate environment will react warily, if not cynically, to an executive's insistence that he or she break the rules, defy the received wisdom, and think out of the box. So, while half the leader's job involves urging the process owner and reengineering team to perform, the other half involves supporting them so that they can perform.
10 Leader Who fills the leader's role? The role requires someone who has enough authority over all stakeholders in the process(es) that will undergo reengineering to ensure that reengineering can happen. This need not be the CEO; in fact, it rarely is. In most large companies, the CEO has concerns that range from raising capital on Wall Street to handling key customers to maintaining peace with the government. Many of these responsibilities direct the CEO's attention outside the company, away from its processes. Often the role of leader belongs to the chief operating officer or general manager
11 Leader The leader must also be a leader. A leader is not someone who makes other people do what he or she wants, but as someone who makes them want what he or she wants. A leader doesn't coerce people into change that they resist. A leader articulates a vision and persuades people that they want to become part of it, so that they willingly, even enthusiastically, accept the distress that accompanies its realization.
12 Leader The reengineering leader can demonstrate leadership through: signals symbols and systems
13 Leader: Signals Signals are the explicit messages that the leader sends to the organization about reengineering: what it means why we are doing it how we are going about it and what it will take. Successful reengineering leaders have learned that they always underestimate how much communicating they must do. Giving a speech or two, or ten, doesn't begin to get the message across. Reengineering is a difficult concept for people to assimilate because it cuts against the grain of everything they've done in their careers
14 Leader: Symbols Symbols are actions that the leader performs to reinforce the content of the signals, to demonstrate that he or she lives by his or her words. Some important symbolic activities that can prove to the organization that the leader is serious about reengineering: Assigning the company's “best and brightest” to reengineering teams rejecting design proposals that promise only incremental improvement and removing managers who block reengineering effort
15 Leader: Systems The leader also needs to use management systems to reinforce the reengineering message. These systems must measure and reward people's performance in ways that encourage them to attempt major change. Punishing the innovator when an innovation fails is the best way to ensure that no one ever attempts to be innovative! Management systems should reward people who try good ideas that fail, not punish them.
16 Leader: What if no leader steps forward? What if the people inspired first are not well positioned for leadership? Then a leader must be brought on board. This requires tact, persistence and self-effacement. The position of leader is essential to the success of reengineering. Not that the other roles are unimportant, but no other individual involved in reengineering is so key as the leader.
17 Process Owner The process owner is responsible for reengineering a specific process. This should be a senior-level manager, usually with line responsibility, who carries prestige, credibility, and clout within the company. If the leader's job is to make reengineering happen in the large, then the process owner's job is to make it happen in the small, at the individual process level. It is the process owner's reputation, bonus, and career that are on the line when his or her process is undergoing reengineering.
18 Process Owner Most companies lack process owners, because in traditional organizations people do not tend to think in process terms. Responsibility for processes is fragmented across organizational boundaries. That's why identifying the company's major processes is a crucial early step in reengineering
19 Process Owner After identifying the processes, the leader designates the owners who will guide those processes through reengineering. Process owners are usually individuals who manage one of the functions involved in the process that will undergo reengineering. To do their reengineering jobs, they have to have the respect of their peers and a stomach for reengineering—they must be people who are comfortable with change, tolerant of ambiguity, and serene in adversity.
20 Process Owner An owner's job is not to do reengineering but to see that it gets done. The owner must assemble a reengineering team and do whatever is required to enable the team to do its job. Process owners also motivate, inspire, and advise their teams. They act as the team's critic, spokesperson, monitor, and liaison.
21 Reengineering Team The actual work of reengineering is the job of the reengineering team members. These are the people who must produce the ideas and the plans and who are often then asked to turn them into realities. These are the people who actually reinvent the business. No team can reengineer more than one process at a time, so a company reengineering more than one process will have more than one reengineering team at work.
22 Reengineering Team These groups are teams not committees. To function as a team they should be small— between 5 and 10 people. Two kind of people in the team: Insiders Outsiders
23 Reengineering Team: Insiders Insiders as people who currently work inside the process undergoing reengineering. They come from the various functions involved in the process. They know the process, or at least the parts of it that they encounter in their jobs. Intimate knowledge of existing process will help the team find its flaws and trace the sources of its performance problems. Proximity to the existing process, however, may hamper thinking about the process in new and imaginative ways.
24 Reengineering Team: Insiders Insiders bring to their reengineering work their credibility with co-workers. When they say that a new process will work the people in organizations from which they've come will believe them. When the time comes to put the new process in place, the insiders will act as key agents in convincing the rest to buy the changes.
25 Reengineering Team: Insiders Their individual perspectives may be too narrow and confined. Further, insiders can hold a vested interests. It would be asking too much to expect them unaided, to overcome their cognitive and institutional biases and to envision radically new ways of working. Left to their own devices, a team made up of insiders will tend to re-create what already exists. They will remain within the framework of the existing process, not break it.
26 Reengineering Team: Outsiders Outsiders do not work in the process that's undergoing, reengineering, so they bring a higher level of objectivity and a different perspective to the team. Outsiders are not afraid to ask the emperor about his new clothes; they are not afraid to ask the naive questions that shatter assumptions and open people's minds to exciting new ways.
27 Reengineering Team: Outsiders From where do outsiders come? By definition, they are outside the process, and often, especially in companies that have not reengineered at least once before, they may be from outside the company. Outsiders need to be good listeners and good communicators. They must be big-picture thinkers and quick studies. They need to be imaginative thinkers, capable of envisioning a concept and making it happen.
28 Reengineering Team: Outsiders How many outsiders in the reengineering team? A ratio of two or three insiders to each outsider is about right.
29 Reengineering Team: Head The reengineering team has no official head. Most reengineering teams find it helpful to have a team captain, sometimes appointed by the owner but usually nominated by acclamation by team members. Sometimes an insider and sometimes an outsider, the captain serves as the team's facilitator
30 Reengineering Team: Supplement The core team is usually supplemented with an outer ring of part-time and occasional contributors, who make more narrow and specialized contributions to the effort. Process customers and suppliers are often represented. Also specialists with expertise in particular disciplines e.g. IT, HR, PR.
31 Steering Committee The reengineering steering committee is an optional aspect of the reengineering governance structure. The steering committee is a collection of senior managers, usually including but not limited to the process owners, who plan the organization's overall reengineering strategy. The leader should chair this group.
32 Steering Committee Issues that transcend the scope of individual processes and projects get aired in the steering committee. For example the order of priority among all the competing reengineering projects and how resources should be allocated. Process owners and their teams come to the steering committee for help when they run into problems that they can not resolve on their own. Committee members hear and resolve conflicts among process owners.
33 Reengineering Czar Process owners and their teams focus on their specific reengineering projects. Who then is concerned with actively managing the engineering effort as a whole, the aggregate of reengineering efforts across the whole organization? The leader has the right perspective but lacks the time for day-to-day management. This role is for the reengineering czar.
34 Reengineering Czar The reengineering czar serves as the leader's chief of staff for reengineering. In principle, he or she should report directly to leader, but there are almost every imaginable reporting variation. The czar has two main functions: enabling and supporting each individual process owner and reengineering team coordinating all ongoing reengineering activities
35 Reengineering Czar A newly appointed process owner's first call should be to the czar, who knows what needs to get done to make reengineering happen. The czar can help select the insiders for the team and can identify appropriate outsiders. The czar keeps a watchful eye on process owners to keep them on track. The czar may convene and moderate discussions among the process owners.
36 Reengineering Czar The reengineering czar is concerned with developing the infrastructure for reengineering Warning!! the czar should not become a problem by becoming too controlling and forgetting that the leader and the process owner are in charge.
37 Conclusion These are the toilers in the vineyard of reengineering: leader, process owner, team with its insiders and outsiders, steering committee, and czar. There may be other names or the reengineering roles may be defined differently. From the issue of “who” reengineers, next question is : “what” gets reengineered?