Presentation on theme: "Strategic Planning and Program Design and Development Class 2 and 3 July 27, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Strategic Planning and Program Design and Development Class 2 and 3 July 27, 2010
Theories: Organizational Behavior 1)Classical Theories: Weber – the ideal bureaucracy Taylor – scientific management Fayol – universal management principles 2) Human Relations Approaches: Hawthorne Studies 3) Human Resources Model: McGregor- Theory X and Theory y Likert – System1 to System 4 4)Open Systems Theory 5)Contemporary Developments: Community-based Organizations Japanese management Top Quality Management (TQM) 6) Contingency Theories
Think about an organization and its target population that you would design. What theories would you use in developing this organization? Please explain why you would use certain theories.
Strategic Planning 1.Why is it necessary? -Strategic Planning describes the process of addressing change -Usually conducted every 3-5 years Important to involve all stakeholders 2.Circumstances that invite strategic planning -a threat to the organization -when things are going well can be used to “think outside the box”
3.Barriers to effective strategic planning -process may consume time and energy -dormant or residual problems may surface -staff may resist introspection -effective managers embark on strategic planning to improve performance, stimulate thinking about the future, encourage teamwork, handle organizational issues, and provide a sense of renewal!
4.Developing the strategic plan a) Getting organized b) Conducting an Analysis c) Develop a Mission Statement d) Ask Fundamental Questions e) Conducting a Resource Audit f) Examining Critical Issues g) Drafting the plan:
Draft plan includes: 1.Mission statement 2.Vision 3.Goals to be accomplished in 3-5 years 4.Internal strengths and weaknesses 5.External opportunities and threats 6.Critical issues facing the organization 7.Action plan for each critical issue 8.Accountability : timetable for each action item
Steps to follow for successful strategic planning 1.Determine why you want to develop a plan 2.Ensure that the organization’s leadership is committed to the process 3.Form a strategic planning group 4.Analyze your situation SWOT 5.Develop a vision for the future 6.Prepare or revise mission statement 7.Identify most critical issues for the organization 8.Prepare action plans, with 3-5 year goals 9.Draft a plan to be reviewed by stakeholders 10.Implement the plan with the intent of modifying as changes arise 11. Update the plan annually
Questions for discussion: 1.Your organization provides socializing opportunities for older adults who like in public housing. Recently, the public housing authority has offered you a considerable amount of funding to include single, disabled adults who reside in public housing and who could benefit from your agency’s services. Your mission statement focuses on senior citizens. What should you do? 2. Your organization has been developing part-time jobs for high risk teens still in high school. You have provided counseling and tutoring to students who have been involved in sub- stance abuse, as well as those who are performing well and likely to go to college. Due to funding cutbacks, you must reduce the number of students in your program. You are faced with the difficult decision of which students you will serve in order to be responsive to the companies that are committed to hiring these students.. How would you determine priorities for which students you would serve in the program?
B. Designing and Developing Consumer-Oriented Programs 1.Logic Planning Model (LPM): Using Social systems Analysis LPM is designed to plan for, achieve, and demonstrate program effectiveness - in LPM, various elements in a human service organization are related to each other to produce results - inputs: client inputs and resource inputs - throughputs: activities or interventions provided by the agency -outputs: number of service units the agency provides -outcomes: positive change that occurs (initial, intermediate, long-term) -pathway: sequence of structured contacts as clients move through the system
Outputs: direct products of program activities that measure the VOLUME of work accomplished. Focus of an output performance measure is on service. -material unit: (e.g., one home-delivered meal) -episode unit: (e.g., one interview with client) -time unit: (e.g., one hour for home health aid program) Agency aggregates these performance units across all clients receiving services; Producing monthly or annual reports Examples of output performance measurements: -number of counseling sessions -number of educational materials distributed -number of meals provides -number of community meetings held -number of clients completing a program -number of seniors completing short-term treatment plans -number of children completing preschool education
Taken alone, output units are insufficient measures of accomplishments OUTCOME MEASURES: a measurable change in a clients life achieved between entry and exit of a program; resulting accomplishments are attributable (at least partially) to a human service program.** Examples of outcome measures: 1.Service data: job placements; decline in child abuse; performance at or above grade level; homeless persons obtaining housing; children placed with adoptive families within 180 days of receipt of referral 2.Standards for measuring outcomes: preschool behavior rating scale; parent attitude survey; knowledge scales and aptitude tests 3.Level of functioning scales that measure outcomes: ratings of mentally ill on decision making and interpersonal interaction; ratings of foster youth on independent living skills and communication 4. Client self-reported satisfaction as a measure of outcomes -satisfaction among clients who were treated or provided services Note: Client satisfaction measures are useful, but may not be objective
Establish Initial, Intermediate, and Long-term Outcomes Initial outcomes: first benefits a client experiences, closely related to a program’s outputs; immediate changes in participant’s knowledge, attitudes or skills (e.g., students’ participation in a tutoring program and greater participation in school activities) Intermediate outcomes: link the program’s initial outcomes to long-term change in behavior that results from participant’s new knowledge, attitudes or skills (e.g., in a school dropout program: regular attendance in school and passing to the next grade level) Long-term outcomes: changes in client’s quality of life (improved parenting, job stabilization, high school graduation) that are measured at a designated follow-up time, 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years after completing the program to determine whether initial gains were sustained. E.g., welfare recipients may be placed in jobs at the end of the program, but may not be employed 12 months later.
Illustration: LPM for employment training program designed to enable welfare recipients to obtain jobs Long-term outcome: Participants remain on job 12 months after completing the program Intermediate outcome: Participants are successfully placed in jobs Initial outcome: Participants learn how to conduct a job interview ; they develop skills Outputs: Participants regularly attend 12 weeks of intensive training; participants meet with mentor twice a week for 12 weeks; participants are placed in internships 20 hours a week, for 10 weeks. Throughputs: Program provides classes on grooming, job interviewing, word processing; provides trained mentors; provides supervision for internship Inputs: Department of Human Services identifies participants for the program; Agency provides instructors, manuals, teaching materials, mentors, internships
Evaluating Outcomes: The LPM provides a way for managers and outside funders to evaluate the extent to which organization achieves its intended impact For each expected outcome, can determine how the outcome was achieved by providing quantitative indicators: Example: evaluate program providing transitional shelter for homeless families and children in a given period (1 year) Outcome 1: Families achieve residential stability Indicator 1: 90% of families pay their rent on time Indicator 2: 86 % of families pay utilities n time Outcome 2: Adults and families obtain job skills and stable employment Indicator 1: 88% of adults are employed full-time Indicator 2: 85% of adults are enrolled in job training Outcome 3: Families achieve greater self-determination Indicator 1: 72% of participants maintain sobriety Indicator 2: 90% of families compete individual case plan
Evaluation: final report – documents outcomes compared to projections discrepancies lead to questions: What resources are necessary to make program more successful; should we alter out client input; modify our interventions; should number of units be increased; modify our outcome measures to be more realistic?
Summary: LPM helps managers critically examine how elements of a program are connected. Start with the desired state or target outcome and work backwards to figure out what needs to be done to reach the target. What program elements are critical to what we want to accomplish? What program interventions need to be modified or improved to reach Our objectives? What new program components should be developed to meet our objectives? How will we define success at initial, intermediate, and long-term intervals?
Developing a Market Planning Model MPM provides a framework for responding to service consumers’ wants and needs MPM focuses on what consumers want and how the agency can meet those needs -An effective manager conducts a competition analysis to review whether other agencies are offering similar services to the same clients -The focus on consumers is at the heart of a market-driven approach -Consumer feedback can be obtained through focus groups and surveys
Summary: Elements of a Good Design (combines both LPM and MPM) 1.Services are consumer oriented 2.Design spells out outputs and outcomes to be achieved 3.Design makes explicit assumptions and maintains a logical sequence of events to ensure positive client outcomes 4.Program is designed with a marketing perspective, special emphasis on being responsive to consumer needs 5.New programs fit the organization’s mission 6.Organization has good feedback mechanisms (focus groups, surveys, etc.) 7.Organization considers the needs and influence of external factors and influences
Questions for discussion: 1.A meeting has been called of representatives of United Way, local mental health board, local health department, local substance abuse board, and public schools. The intent is to explore whether to create a centralized in-take system in several neighborhoods involving these organizations to serve needy families. What are the pros and cons of setting up a centralized office? 2.What ways do you think are best for obtaining client input and feedback on agency services? 3. What do you think about a market driven approach to guide social services?
Develop a LPM for your newly created program. Specify inputs, throughputs, outputs and Outcomes (initial, intermediate, long-term) Discuss ways in which you would incorporate the MPM into your new program