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Reviews the context: what’s happened with levels (in England: if you’re in Wales, the rest should also be useful)happened with levels Reviews progression, presents the GA’s new model of progression and expectations in geography, and opportunities to strengthen progression Reviews progression Reviews key assessment practices, and opportunities and choices for you to review your assessment system and how you make judgementsassessment Summarises how these aspects fit together, with a range of ways you may promote progress. Summarises There’s also a commentary in Notes and a short audio intro can be downloaded here: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8Tt-ftZnu- cajAyZDFGTlBqcGM/view?usp=sharinghttps://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8Tt-ftZnu- cajAyZDFGTlBqcGM/view?usp=sharing ©GA 2014
Attainment target: by the end of each key stage, pupils are expected to know, apply and understand the matters, skills and processes specified in the relevant programme of study. CONTEXT : National Curriculum in England - Levels have gone! ©GA 2014
Removing levels removes a familiar, usable, but problematic structure, but without providing an alternative vision for either progression or assessment. Challenges: the move away from a national structure undermines a shared understanding of assessment and of standards: the GA’s proposals aim to remedy this Opportunities: freedom for teachers to pay more attention to pupils’ learning; to redesign assessment to focus better on progress in geography; to re-discover professional judgements, and go beyond the National Curriculum. ©GA 2014
‘A teacher’s main task is to create opportunities for their students to progress‘ Taylor 2013 ‘The concept of progression, which focuses on the advances in students’ learning over a period of time, is important for planning the structure of a curriculum and for assessing students' attainment‘ Bennetts, 2005 ‘If we did not hope that students would progress we would have no foundation on which to construct a curriculum or embark on the act of teaching’ Daugherty ©GA 2014
The roots of understanding: a product of experience, ideas and mental processes ©GA 2014
Source: Rawling, 2008 ©GA 2014
We have identified these three aspects of achievement in geography:aspects of achievement 1. Contextual world knowledge of locations, places and geographical features. 2. Understanding of the conditions, processes and interactions that explain geographical features, distribution patterns, and changes over time and space. 3. Competence in geographical enquiry, and the application of skills in observing, collecting, analysing, evaluating and communicating geographical information. ©GA 2014
For the three aspects of achievement, we have identified these five dimensions of progress in geography:dimensions of progress Contextual world knowledge Demonstrating greater fluency with world knowledge by drawing on increasing breadth and depth of content and contexts. Understanding Extending from the familiar and concrete to the unfamiliar and abstract. Making greater sense of the world by organising and connecting information and ideas about people, places, processes and environments. Working with more complex information about the world, including the relevance of people’s attitudes, values and beliefs. Geographical enquiry and skills Increasing the range and accuracy of pupils’ investigative skills, and advancing their ability to select and apply these with increasing independence to geographical enquiry. ©GA 2014
We’ve devised benchmarks for expectations at ages 7, 9, 11, 14, to 16: these reflect the three aspects of achievement and five dimensions of progress, e.g.: By the age of 7 pupils should: Demonstrate simple locational knowledge about individual places and environments, in the local area, but also in the UK and wider world. Show understanding by describing the places and features they study using simple geographical vocabulary, identifying some similarities and differences and simple patterns in the environment Be able to investigate places and environments by asking and answering questions, making observations and using sources such as simple maps, atlases, globes, images and aerial photos. Download these from: ©GA 2014
You could use them to/by: inform your understanding of progression and expectations in geography and discuss with colleagues modifying them to set standards in your school adapting and then share with parents/pupils adapting these benchmarks to show expectations for each year group, eg ‘an expert geographer in Year 5 knows…’ compare with expectations in other subjects (e.g. history) support long term, summative assessment and reporting (see below) inform your medium term/unit plans – coming up shortlycoming up shortly inform review: does the curriculum really deliver these standards? ©GA 2014
Unit A: Medium term plans with detailed objectives and criteria ©GA 2014
Key Stage 3: Pupils will show evidence of: Contextual knowledge The global distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes and plate boundaries Locational knowledge of specific events Understanding The structure of the Earth, plate movements The relationship between volcanic activity and processes at plate boundaries Tectonic landforms The impact of volcanic eruptions on human activities, and how people can prepare for and respond to the hazard Geographical enquiry Investigation, using atlas and graphic skills to locate, describe and explain tectonic distributions ©GA 2014
Download the KS2 and KS3 detailed plans from herefrom here 1. It’s helpful to have a unit overview: this anchors it in the wider curriculum. Possibilities include: NC reference points Key concepts Focus statement: summary of the territory/your purposes Achievement summary; pupils will show evidence of Contextual knowledge Understanding Competence in geographical enquiry. ©GA 2014
It is helpful to devise objectives and outcomes/criteria which can shape mark schemes. 2. Objectives possibilities: Key questions More detailed objectives: what pupils should know, understand, be able to do for the theme (drawing on the three aspects of achievement). 3. Criteria Pitch – criteria related to the content of the unit, looking at the expectations benchmarks and where pupils are. You can share all three with pupils, especially the objectives and criteria: they will help them know how they are doing and what they need to do to improve geographically. ©GA 2014
Pupils’ learning and progress in geography is seldom linear. Assessment needs to be carefully planned into teaching activities - aiming to maximise a pupil’s potential by identifying the next steps in learning. Effective assessment is an ongoing process throughout the fabric of teaching and learning, in which pupils and teachers develop awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and, armed with this knowledge, seek to improve learning outcomes. ©Geographical Association 2014 Source: primary assessment and accountability under the new national curriculum - GA response October 2013
Pupil: knows how they are doing and how to improve (promotes progress and achievement) Teacher: plan next steps, make well founded judgements about attainment School: structured, systematic assessment system – tracking, reporting Parents and carers: know how their child is doing, improvement and how they can support child and teacher ©GA 2014
Periodic Day-to- day Transitional AfL practices such as peer- and self-assessment Immediate feedback and next steps (pupils) directly support progress; where next (teachers) Focus: short term, formative assessment/AfL Broader view of progress for teacher and learner Making interim judgements by applying geography benchmarks in the classroom; opportunities to improve Focus: mainly medium term, formative/summative Making summative judgements, formal recognition of achievement, based on geography benchmarks Reported to parents/carers and next teacher/school Curriculum review Focus: long term, summative/AoL ©GA 2014
Formative/AfL: day-to-day (often informal) assessments; looking forward identify pupils’ current understanding give feedback to prompt action/improvement by pupils help teachers plan how to help pupils develop next. Summative/AoL: long-term (usually formal) summing-up of progress; looking backward providing information certification selection. ©GA 2014
Using the expectations benchmarks, you could: collect small samples of work which exemplify quality work at each benchmark and/or for each aspect: annotate them include longitudinal work which exemplifies progress for a small number of individual pupils at your school share/moderate this portfolio which exemplifies and evidences your standards and progress with colleagues, pupils, governors, inspectors, other schools use the benchmarks as a backdrop for annual reporting apply the NAHT system of ‘working towards’ ‘meeting’ ‘exceeded’ to make judgements about attainment in the long term, and support recording and reporting differentiate expectations by looking at the benchmark above or below. ©GA 2014
Using the objectives and criteria, you could: share them with pupils adapt the format to include the most useful features to you add or modify the objectives to suit your course/interests write similar objectives/criteria for other units/ content to guide assessment express outcomes based on the three domains (knowledge/understanding/enquiry) make some objectives/criteria more demanding, to allow for differentiation or progression within the unit plan a variety of assessment formats to pin down different aspects of achievement apply ‘working towards’/’met’/’exceeded’ to make judgements about attainment in relation to this unit ©GA 2014
You could (probably should) deploy these AfL practices: objectives and success criteria shared with pupils, and regularly reviewed, reflected on modelling quality, examples of quality work shared with pupils to set expectations, promote progress a questioning classroom self- and peer-assessment formative feedback (written, oral) and subsequent improvement confidence in quality and improvement for all. ©GA 2014
Key Stage 3Progress checks: Tectonics e.g. Week 3Short test: earth structure and plates Week 7Group display: comparing two volcano landforms and processes Week 9Book check: paired classes across year group Week 11-12Enquiry: comparing impact of a volcanic eruption and earthquake, assessed using criteria for the unit EndPupil evaluation /teacher progress review More AFL Expectations for this unit/year More AOL ©GA 2014
Scale/focusPractice, e.g.:Progress and standards Short term: day to day AfL classroom practice, e.g. questioning, formative feedback/response etc Evident in teaching and learning, in pupils’ ongoing work, response to feedback etc Frequent : basic knowledge/skills Short test, identified piece of homework More in-depth marking Progress check (confidence vs concern?) – can give you a number Half/Termly: conceptual, procedural knowledge Short research task, problem-solving exercise etc Access to work at particular standards – e.g. display Peer/self assessment Criterion marking and feedback linked to pitch/age- related expectations As above, plus opportunity to develop portfolio of geog work exemplifying & sharing standards and illustrating progress. Long term: Year/Key Stage: substantial, conceptual development A major piece of work – e.g. enquiry, DME, ext writing. End of year/key stage: perhaps synoptic, drawing learning together ©GA 2014
Progress evident:Monitoring/reference point In action – AfL classroom processes applied to geographical learning Your professional judgements Lesson obs, (e.g. paired/co-obs) In books/work: formative marking, plus pupils’ response/improvements Book scrutiny e.g. paired groups In mark-book (e.g. homework, tests)Quick checks on progress On more significant pieces of work, criterion-marking Standards and progress by unit/term, yearly progress in relation to expectations Across unit/s the demand will rise, so pupils meeting expectations will make progress Geography portfolio: samples to show standards (e.g. end of Y6, Y9), plus progress over the key stage for a few pupils Long-term review of standards and progress ©GA 2014
You could: Turn the outcome criteria for units or a year into a narrative Talk about progress in relation to the expectations, give examples from the dimensions of progress Talk about expectations (meet/above/below) in relation to the work studied At Key Stage 3, perhaps link expectations to future GCSE grading. ©GA 2014
The above guidance is designed to inform your professional thinking and decisions at school level. Adopting a range of these strategies will support you to promote, and give you a good handle on, pupils’ geographical achievements and progress; underpinned by shared understanding of expectations in geography. Key point: underpinning your planning with clear expectations will help you ramp up the demand/challenge across units and the key stage. So pupils recorded as ‘meeting expectations’ in successive units/years will inevitably make progress. ©GA 2014
We are developing the GA’s assessment site with further guidance and examplesassessment site The ‘Assessing without levels’ articles in recent GA Magazine and Teaching Geography give more support (members only access). GA Magazine Teaching Geography ©GA 2014
How to assess: Uses and purposes of current assessment tools © McLachlan, Edwards, Margrain & McLean 2013.
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