Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

LAND REFORM AND FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: A GENDER PERSPECTIVE BY ABBY TAKA MGUGU WOMEN’S LAND AND WATER RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA 13 LANGHAM:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "LAND REFORM AND FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: A GENDER PERSPECTIVE BY ABBY TAKA MGUGU WOMEN’S LAND AND WATER RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA 13 LANGHAM:"— Presentation transcript:

1 LAND REFORM AND FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: A GENDER PERSPECTIVE BY ABBY TAKA MGUGU WOMEN’S LAND AND WATER RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA 13 LANGHAM: UNIVERISTY OF ZIMBABWE MT.PLEASANT HARARE: ZIMBABWE

2 INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAND QUESTION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA : THE HISTORY OF THE COLONIAL POWER SHAPED THE LAND QUESTION IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN COUNTRIES WITH MARKED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PORTUGUESE AND THE BRITISH IN THE BRITISH COLONIES LAND QUESTION SHAPED BY: - IMBALANCES IN THE PATTERNS OF OWNERSHIP IN FORMER SETTLER COLONIAL STATES OF NAMIBIA, SOUTH AFRICA AND ZIMBABWE -TENURE RIGHTS AND LAND USE WERE THE FEATURES IN THE FORMER PROTECTORATES OF BOTSWANA, MALAWI AND ZAMBIA

3 INTRODUCTION CONT’D THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT AS DETERMINED BY THE COLD WAR ALSO HAD AN IMPACT ON THE LAND QUESTION IN THE REGION. RESULTING IN COUNTRIES LIKE ANGOLA TANZANIA AND MOZAMBIQUE OPTING FOR A SOCIALIST MODEL THE ABOVE FACTORS PROVIDE A FOCUS ON THE LAND REFORM PROGRAMMES IN THE REGION

4 LAND QUESTION PATTERNS IN THE SADC REGION Land Reform milestones Former Portuguese colonies ANGOLA : AT INDEPENDENCE PRIVATE PROPERTY ABOLISHED STATE FARMS AND COOPERATIVES FORMED STATE FARMS ABOLISHED IN 1985: INDIVIDIAL ALLOCATION PUT IN PLACE INDIVIDUAL LAND RIGHTS EMERGING NO POLICY POSITION DUE TO THE PROTRACTED CIVIL WAR

5 PORTUGUESE COLONIES Mozambique 1975 ALL LAND NATIONALISED WITH LIMITED PRIVATE OWNERSHIP: LARGE SMALL HOLDER COOPERATIVE ESTABLISHED; VILLAGISATION SCHEMES AND LARGE STATE FARMS 1983 STATE OWNED COMPANIES EMERGED: 1997 LAND LAW PASSED AND UPHOLDS NATIONALISATION OF THE LAND LAW RECOGNISES THE RIGHT TO LAND THROUGH OCCUPATION GUARANTEES COMPANIES AND COMMUNITIES ‘TITLE FOR USE AND IMPROVEMENT ON LAND’ FOREIGN INVESTORS GRANTED 50 YEAR LEASES RENEWABLE FOR ANOTHER 50 YEARS

6 SETTLER COLONIES: SOUTH AFRICA, NAMIBIA AND ZIMBABWE CHARACTERISED BY EXTREME INEQUALITIES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF LAND BETWEEN WHITES & BLACKS SOUTH AFRICA (87%) WHITES AND BLACKS (13%) NAMIBIA: 45% AND 74% POTENTIAL ARABLE LAND OWNED BY 2% OF THE POPULATION MAINLY WHITE ZIMBABWE:45% OF LAND OWNED BY 1% OF POPN AT INDEPENDENCE GOVTS EMBARKED ON MARKET DRIVEN LAND REFORM SOUTH AFRICA ADOPTED A DEMAND DRIVEN AND RIGHTS BASED APPROACH TO TENURE REFORMS ZIM PROVIDED PEMITS THAT DEFINED TENURE RIGHTS TO LAND AND SYSTEM IS INSECURE IN 2000 ZIM INITIATED AND SUPPORTED LAND OCCUPATIONS

7 GENDER DIMENSIONS IN THE LAND REFORMS IN THE REGION REGION IS PATRIARCHAL: LAND IS ALLOCATED TO MALE MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY WOMEN’S RIGHTS ERODED DURING COLONISATION AND CONCEPT UPHELD IN THE POST INDEPENDENT STATE CONCEPT IGNORES INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS INTRUMENTS THAT THE GOVTS ARE PARTY TO WOMEN’S SECONDARY RIGHTS TO LAND AND OTHER PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES DETRIMENTAL TO THE REGION’S PROGRAMME OF INTEGRATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

8 OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA FOOD INSECURITY HAS BEEN TOPICAL IN THE SSA DISCOURSE FOR THE PAST THREE DECADES SHOWING THAT: 620 MILLION PEOPLE ARE POOR AND OF THIS 80% LIVE BELOW USD2 PER DAY AND 50% LIVE BELOW USD1 PER DAY 97% OF THE FOOD INSECURE ARE IN SSA OUT OF THE 97% WHO ARE FOOD INSECURE 34% ARE CLASSIFIED AS MALNOURISHED 70% OF THE POPN LIVE IN RURAL AREAS WHILE URBANISATION IS LOW AT AN ESTIMATE OF 30% RURAL POPULATION DEPEND ON SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE FOR THEIR LIVELIHOODS

9 PRODUCTION LEVELS IN SSA PRODUCTION LEVELS IN SSA ARE LOW COMPARED TO OTHER REGIONS 2001 CEREAL YIELDS: AFRICA 1230Kg/.Ha ASIA 3090Kg/Ha LATIN AMERICA 3040Kg/Ha EU 5470Kg/Ha REASONS FOR LOW PRODUCTIVITY: EXTENSIVE CROP PRODUCTION RATHER THAN INTENSIVE FARMING OVER USE OF SOILS AND SOIL EROSION DEPENDENCY ON INORGANIC CHEMICALS WHICH FARMERS CAN NO LONGER AFFORD EXTREME CLIMATIC VARIABILITY WITH ALTERNATING DROUGHTS AND FLOODS

10 OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY IN SADC NEGATIVE PER CAPITA FOOD PRODUCTION GROWTH BETWEEN 1980 AND 1995 OF –1.0% AGAINST A POPULATION GROWTH OF 3.0% PER ANNUM THE STATUS OF FOOD INSECURITY AS EVIDENCED BY THE INCREASED NUMBER OF MALNOURISHED ( 38% BETWEEN AND 42% BETWEEN 1997 – 99) FURTHER EVIDENCED BY THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN NEED OF FOOD AID WHICH WAS ESTIMATED TO BE 14 MILLION BY 2002: ZIMBABWE 49%; MALAWI 29% LESOTHO 30% ZAMBIA 26% SWAZILAND 49% MOZAMBIQUE 3% (ECA 2003) 2003/4 SEASON SHOWED NO IMPROVEMENT IN THE FOOD SITUATION IN THE REGION WITH TOTAL AID REQUIREMENT STANDING AT 2.9 MILLION METRIC TONNES:

11 OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY INSADC CONT’D Lesotho : Malawi ; Mozambique Namibia ( A Third Of The Total Nation’s Population) Swaziland ; Zimbabwe 5 Million 2005/2006 STATUS 1% Increase In Maize Harvest: 13% above the past five-year average: the surplus in located in South Africa INCREASES REALISED IN :Angola (38%) Lesotho (40%) South Africa 27%: Swaziland (6%); Tanzania (2%) Decreases experienced in Botswana (69%); Malawi (29%); Zambia (29%): Zim (75%)

12 Overview of food security cont’d pple in need of food aid: 2005/2006 Country# in needEst. Cereal needs mt tonnes of food aid Lesotho Malawi Moz Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Total (Zim Figures require further verification) (Source SADC FANR 2005)

13 REASONS FOR FOOD INSECURITY IN THE REGION GENERAL REASONS Climatic variability - droughts and floods Droughts – – 2002 Floods : Cyclone Eline Perennial floods of Western Zambia; Eastern Angola and Zambezi valley in Zimbabwe HIV and AIDS Overall policy framework at national levels

14 Reasons for food deficit in selected countries Botswana: Poor rains and reduced planting led to a 44% decrease in 2005 harvest Lesotho: increase of 47% realising tonnes from tonnes Zambia: maize prodn declined by 29% to tonnes from 1,2 million in 2004 due to poor rains Zimbabwe: production dropped by 75% due to poor rains and the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. (NB: Figures for Zim not very clear)

15 Trade and Food Security The SADC Trade Protocol 1996 governs trade in the region with the following objectives - remove tariff and non-tariff barriers in the region - achieve free trade area within 8 years - Tanzania : does not allow exportation of maize without a licenses - Malawi: requires import licenses for meat poultry and sugar; export licenses for maize, maize meal and tea - Zambia: imposes temp import and export bans for some agric commodities esp. maize - Zimbabwe: The GMB has the monopoly of exporting and importing maize and rice The skewed trading patterns btwn North and South also account for cont’d food insecurity in the region

16 Conclusions Lack of a common position on land reform will continue to plague the region Uneven access to factors of production Non-implementation of the land desk at SADC secretariat Mismanagement and poor governance Corruption – the case of Malawi Economic problems and inflation ( case of Zimbabwe) SADC fails to meet the MDGS esp. goal 1 and 3


Download ppt "LAND REFORM AND FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: A GENDER PERSPECTIVE BY ABBY TAKA MGUGU WOMEN’S LAND AND WATER RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA 13 LANGHAM:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google