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“Free to the people” since 1895 Jumpstarting a 105 Year- old Community Icon: Bringing a 19 th Century Library into the 21 st Century.

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Presentation on theme: "“Free to the people” since 1895 Jumpstarting a 105 Year- old Community Icon: Bringing a 19 th Century Library into the 21 st Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Free to the people” since 1895 Jumpstarting a 105 Year- old Community Icon: Bringing a 19 th Century Library into the 21 st Century

2 “Free to the people” since 1895 a presentation to PLA Annual Conference Minneapolis March 2008

3 “Free to the people” since 1895 Your Presenters  Richard Kaplan Manager, Reference Services Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh – Main  Karen Rossi Manager Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh – Downtown & Business

4 “Free to the people” since 1895 Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh

5 “Free to the people” since 1895 Why did we embark on this project?

6 “Free to the people” since 1895 Examining the role of public library  Impact of Internet?  Impact of amazon.com and super bookstores?  Effect of rise in service economy on customers’ expectations?  Implication of the decrease in free time and increase in discretionary income (for some)?  Relevance of the academic model of subject- specific departments for the public library?

7 “Free to the people” since 1895 Goals of library redesign  Created library that is customer-centered and user-friendly Eliminate customer frustration Arrange activities and key spaces  Increase user base  Deliver information needs to users  Make library a destination in the community

8 “Free to the people” since 1895 Outcome of Strategic Planning: Our challenge  Transformed space and services Designed and created a popular destination within a traditional library Merged subject departments into a cohesive Reference Department Trained and mentored staff to focus on excellent service to customers

9 “Free to the people” since 1895 Capital projects  We embarked on our renovation projects 4 architects, 7 locations and more to come! Distinct neighborhoods, distinct libraries  Website redesign  Concerned that communication with the public would become more fragmented and unplanned unless we created a consistent conceptual framework that would both inform and be layered on top of the new physical architecture Information Architecture informed the process.

10 “Free to the people” since 1895 Information Architecture ?

11 “Free to the people” since 1895 An information architecture gives you predictability (it’s one of the ways we make things easier to use…) taming complexity TM User InterfaceInformation ArchitectureSystem Architecture

12 “Free to the people” since 1895 Example: McDonald’s  Infrastructure: the building, the cooking equipment, the pricing structure, what times of day you can get an Egg McMuffin vs. a Big Mac, etc.  user interface: the signs and the design of the customer-facing portions of the infrastructure.  information architecture: the mental model that most people share for “ how to interact with a fast food restaurant ”. Includes the concepts of: a menu with items and their prices (only shows what you can order at that time, or lists the times) a place where promotions are displayed a sequence of events that are followed in a particular order an area in which to place an order, pay for the order, pick up the order an area in which to eat the food a place to discard the garbage

13 “Free to the people” since 1895 Libraries as complex organizations  Variety of customer needs  Variety of services  Variety of materials  Variety of facility issues  Depth of resources

14 “Free to the people” since 1895 Organizers make connections Overview > Research > Analysis > Design

15 “Free to the people” since 1895 Overview > Research > Analysis > Design The end of every customer journey should be the beginning of a new one

16 “Free to the people” since 1895 How do we serve the 21 st century library user?

17 “Free to the people” since 1895 What do we want people to think when they walk in our doors?

18 “Free to the people” since 1895 How can we optimize our space, services and collections?

19 “Free to the people” since 1895

20 Outdoor space

21 “Free to the people” since 1895 rammingramming Quiet Reading Room

22 “Free to the people” since 1895 Large print room

23 “Free to the people” since 1895 The Main

24 “Free to the people” since 1895

25 Teen

26 “Free to the people” since 1895

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30 Results?  Named Number One “Most Useful Web Site” in Pittsburgh by Pittsburgh Magazine in 2004  4.1 million visits in 2004  5.9 million visits in 2007

31 “Free to the people” since 1895 Always ask myself: What do I hope people will say about this library? This staff? How can we optimize our space, services & collections?

32 “Free to the people” since 1895 What are we committed to? What do we want to accomplish as we work together?

33 “Free to the people” since 1895 Staff selection  Qualities / characteristics  Hire for attitude  Teach skills

34 “Free to the people” since 1895 Hiring process  General announcement and invitation All-staff newsletter Internal job posting  Information sessions

35 “Free to the people” since 1895 Hiring process  Letter of interest  Meet & Greets  Interviews

36 “Free to the people” since 1895 Sample interview questions  What’s the best customer service transaction you’ve ever experienced (in any environment)?  What would you do to change the traditional perception of the library to become a more vibrant place to visit?

37 “Free to the people” since 1895 Don’t ask, “What if it doesn’t work?” Instead, ask, “How will I feel if I don’t even try?” - Suzanne Zoglio

38 “Free to the people” since 1895 Staff training and development  To learn and master skill sets  Challenge staff to explore and develop fresh, new ideas Expectation: explosion of ideas  Brainstorm  Encourage new approaches to library services How can we do it better? More effectively? Imaginative & innovative  Take risks

39 “Free to the people” since 1895 Staff training and development  Customer service / best practices  Booklists, book reviews  Book discussion groups  Collection development basics  Understanding our Goals & Objectives  Databases  Program planning and implementation  Readers’ Advisory skills  Reference interview

40 “Free to the people” since 1895 Ongoing staff training  Reader’s Advisory workshops Staff lead training workshops Mysteries, urban lit, romance, chick lit Overview of bestselling authors, subgenres, award winners CLP staff and librarians throughout the county consortium attended

41 “Free to the people” since 1895 Ongoing staff training  At staff meetings Best Practices Roundtables Enhance book-talking skills Genre-of-the-month readings Discuss what we’re reading in the genre Brainstorm read-alikes Constant practice

42 “Free to the people” since 1895 What fascinates you? What makes your heart sing?

43 “Free to the people” since 1895 Staff involvement  We’re creating a unique atmosphere, even a spirit.  We’re identifying 21 st Century customer service expectations.  We’re creating a new type of teamwork for managers and staff.  Our staff have new opportunities to work together.

44 “Free to the people” since 1895 Our challenge  Transformed space and services Designed and created a popular destination within a traditional library Merged subject departments into a cohesive Reference Department Trained and mentored staff to focus on excellent service to customers

45 “Free to the people” since 1895 Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Opened November 5, 1895 The Library's first annual report, January 31, A staff of nineteen; A book collection of 27,000 volumes; A City appropriation of $65,000; and Cash in hand for the erection of seven branch buildings Children’s Department opened & 1899 Andrew Carnegie gives two $10,000 gifts for technical periodicals and the journals of learned societies Science & Technology Department established. (Believed to be the oldest such Dept. in a US public library Patent Depository established Government Document depository status million items, 96 staff.45

46 “Free to the people” since 1895 Around the mid 1970s Between 1996 &

47 “Free to the people” since Around the mid 1970s Between 1996 & 2001

48 “Free to the people” since 1895 Background Application of business planning model to public library operations. Process begun for strategic planning and goal setting. Staff, customer and consultant research / input to determine future directions System wide strategic planning process initiated. Services Facilities Training Collections Existing research service model with subject departments, last altered in Do existing services meet current & projected user demands and needs? Does the facility support the needed service requirements?48

49 “Free to the people” since Subject Departments 1. Children's Dept. 2. Foundation Center 3. Humanities (AV, Fiction, Literature, Poetry, Religion, Philosophy, Sports, Entertainment.) 4. Job, Career & Education. 5. Music & Art Dept. 6. Pennsylvania Dept. (Local History, Pennsylvaniana, Genealogy.) 7. Science & Technology (Sciences, Medicine & Health, Patents, Cookbooks, Psychology, & Gov Docs.) 8. Social Sciences (History, Politics, Law, Business, Geography, Sociology, & Gov Docs.)49

50 “Free to the people” since 1895 LC shelving organized by department floor. 1 st floor - Humanities. B-BD, BH-BX, GV, P-PZ & Fiction. 2 nd floor – Social Sciences. A, C-CN, CR-CT, D-L & Z. 2 nd floor – Music & Art. M-N. 3 rd floor – Science & Technology. Q-V, circulating Dewey. 8 “stacks” of Reference materials NOT browsable. User Focus Group Conclusions. Confusing “jargon”. We use terminology not used / understood by public library user. Unnecessary multiple trips to find information and materials. AV (then 25% of all circulation) too decentralized and spread out. Conclusion / recommendation adopted, Fall 2002: Provide an Integrated Service Delivery Model.50

51 “Free to the people” since 1895 What is an Integrated Service Delivery Model? A consolidation of the major subject discipline depts. Redistribution of the reference and circulating non-fiction collections into sequential call number order. Transfer of almost all pre-1970 periodicals and the library’s Heritage Collections to off-site depository and allow for 5 years of growth in the circulating and reference stack areas. What are the benefits? Less customer / user confusion. Single point of service for reference. (excl. PA and Jobs.) Reduction in overall staff costs. Services and collections that more accurately reflect library use. Enhance the value of the professional staff by providing training and experience that broadens their depth of knowledge.51

52 “Free to the people” since 1895 Then Existing Model for Main Library Children's Dept. Foundation Center Humanities Job, Career & Education. Music & Art Dept. Pennsylvania Dept. Science & Technology Social Sciences Planned Model for Main Library Children's Dept. Film & Audio – New. New & Featured – New. Job, Career & Education. Pennsylvania Dept. Combined Reference The Foundation Center moved to CLP’s Downtown & Business Library in Main Library Service Points52

53 “Free to the people” since 1895 How to Implement the Program? Summer, Selected a Manager to coordinate the subject department merger, who became the Dept. Head. Developed a timeline to merge the departments and services based on renovation and collection shifting program at Main Library. Transferred of all Services affected by construction schedule on library’s first floor. Humanities, Job Center and Customer Services (check-in, check-out, returns and library cards) Shifted of over 1,000,000 volumes (+500,000 non print items) on 11 floors or stacks into call number order. Opened up an additional floor for public browsing, and transferred pre-1970 periodicals and duplicate reference materials to off-site depository (100,000 items.) Weeded, cleaned up and transferred another 50,000 items from “old” warehouse to depository. Weeded over 150,000 items from Main Library collections.53

54 “Free to the people” since 1895 Open Stack Open Stack (new) Open Stack Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Main Library floor profile Offices, shipping, admin. 54

55 “Free to the people” since 1895 At the same time we: 1. Developed a plan for the new First Floor configuration 2. Setup a new Film & Audio Dept. 3. Reconfigured our Photocopy & Microfilm Services Photocopy previously reported to Science & Technology Microfilm previously reported to Social Sciences. 4. Maintained all of our services during renovation. 5. Accommodated users from nearby Squirrel Hill Branch closed for renovations. (Single busiest neighborhood location after Main Library.) 6. Re-opened two branches that completed renovations. 7. Eliminated 13 positions system-wide due to state funding cuts. (The blow was softened by having 11 concurrent vacancies in Main Library.) 55

56 “Free to the people” since 1895 The Process Examined Carnegie Library subject departments and other urban libraries that had merged or consolidated departments. Began a regular round of information meetings with all of Main Library staff to keep them informed of developments, invite suggestions, and promote staff buy-in. Reviewed Collections. Reviewed Budget allocations. Reviewed Periodical & Serial acquisitions. Substantial duplication of tools and standard titles between depts. Looked at outside collaborative efforts. Examined Information & Vertical Files. (3/4 were discarded.) Assessed skill requirements in different disciplines. Discovered idiosyncratic ways of each department. Asked what other libraries had done. 56

57 “Free to the people” since 1895 Prior to Renovations. Established a schedule and scope of cross-training to be developed and conducted by Main Library staff. The staff needed to learn and develop the practical skills outside their traditional areas. Makes them an integral part of the process. They’re making it happen, it’s not being done to them. Determined an order to integrate the departments. Decision was made based on our intuition, and observations of outside libraries that it needs to be a graduated process. Complete individual departments in a deliberate fashion. Merge the staff and the collections together, with particular attention paid to what the incoming staff feel are their important reference resources. 57

58 “Free to the people” since 1895 Concurrent with cross-training, began a cycle of cross-staffing in the existing departments. Exposed staff to resources and patrons they’re not familiar with. Better acquaint them with their professional colleagues and future co-workers. Better acquaint them with their “new” patrons. Increase and promote all-around comfort levels. 58

59 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training (39 sessions between February & June, 2003) February Humanities Dept. general overview. Music & Art Dept. general overview Social Sciences Dept. general overview. Science & Technology Dept. general overview. Teens general overview. What is a general overview? Nature and scope of the dept’s. collection and service areas. Nature of the most common inquiries and questions asked. Most common and useful reference resources utilized. Which staff have subject expertise. 59

60 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training - Workshops Humanities Workshops. Readers Advisory Literature –American –British –World Literary Criticism African American Literary Resources Shakespeare Resources Finding poems and short stories. Religion & Theology Resources. Authorsheets (Carnegie Library developed literature resource) Using Explicators Concordances 60

61 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training - Workshops Music & Art.* Art & Artists. Architecture. Appraisals and Auction Prices. Collectibles. Pittsburgh Artists and Architecture. Music – Searching Uniform Titles in the catalog. Musicians, variations on names and non-English use. Pittsburgh Musicians. Special collections within the Music & Art Dept. Music Scores & Sheet Music. * In late 2005, we decided to keep Music itself as a separate department sharing common functions and space with the Film & Audio Dept. 61

62 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training - Workshops Social Sciences Dept. ERIC and other resources in education. History sets. Finding statistical data –Governmental –International Business information –Directory –Financial data Consumer information Copyright Government Documents. –Introduction –Finding Aids –Formats 62

63 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training - Workshops Science & Technology Dept. Science Handbooks –(Chemistry, Physics, etc.) Science Fair Projects Manufacturer’s Directories –Duns –Thomas’ Registers Army & Navy Registers Medline Patents –US –British Trademarks 63

64 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training - Workshops Science & Technology Standards (CLP maintains a significant collection.) –ANSI –ASTM –British & ISO –MILSPEC Building & Construction Codes. –BOCA –National Fire Safety Code –RS Means Topographical Maps & Mapping. Used Car Prices. Government Documents. NASA & SAE Technical Reports (Fiche.) 64

65 “Free to the people” since 1895 Cross Training Workshops Unique Construct. Half of the classes designed by the subject departments. The 2 nd half were planned based on feedback and requests from the librarians themselves. Based on their experiences during cross-staffing exchanges. Based on questions colleagues were asking the subject librarians. Cross Training was continual, gradually becoming an internal continuing education tool. We still do them. Once or twice a month. Informal. Staff driven and staff taught. No more than 1 hour. Content, topic, or database specific. 65

66 “Free to the people” since 1895 Timeline 2003 Planned & scheduled cross-training / cross-staffing. Initiated deliberate cross training programs and cross-staffing. Continued through June. First floor of the library closes for renovations (excluding the Children’s Dept.) Humanities Dept. shares space and staffing with Social Sciences Dept. but is maintained as a separate administrative unit. (Not fully merged yet.) Late Humanities and Social Sciences Depts. officially become the first two components of the new Reference Services Dept. 66

67 “Free to the people” since 1895 Timeline 2004 Continued cross-staffing with Science & Technology and Music & Art Depts. Late moved the resources and staff of Science & Technology Dept. to the 2 nd floor and merged them into Reference Services Reassigned Art Librarian to Reference Services. Maintain split schedule with Music & Art Dept until December while new Film & Audio Dept., coordinated with Music librarians All intended subject departments merged into Reference Services. 67

68 “Free to the people” since 1895 Reality Check – November 2004 Reference Question Survey – Two weeks. Tracked every reference question asked (excl. directional.) Confirmed the premise behind the consolidation of the subject departments. Tracked where the users are from. Tracked who they are. –Students –Business community –Regular library user or not? What resources were used? Expertise level required to answer the question. 68

69 “Free to the people” since 1895 Reference Question User Survey 69

70 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Results Social Sciences / Humanities 2050 Questions 20% - History 20% - Literary Criticism 15% - Business related. 15% - “What is…?” 30% - Mixed 70

71 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Results Social Sciences / Humanities Users 50% - Personal 40% - Students 50% - College & University 45% - Secondary 5% - Elementary 10% - Business Users. 71

72 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Results Science & Technology 1970 Questions. 45% - General 20% - Common Science & Health 15% - Patents & Trademarks. 10% - “How do I…?” 10% - Hard Sciences. 72

73 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Results Science & Technology Users 45% - Personal 40% - Students 65% - College & University 30% - Secondary 5% - Elementary 15% - Business Users. 73

74 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Results Music & Art 1230 Questions 30% - Hard Music 25% - Music Scores 15% - Hard Art 15% - General Music 15% - Mixed Lyrics Collectibles Images 74

75 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Results Music & Art Users 60% - Personal 25% - Students 65% - College & University 30% - Secondary 5% - Elementary 15% - Business Users. Auction Houses Attorneys Appraisers 75

76 “Free to the people” since 1895 Survey Conclusions: 1. Decision to consolidate subject departments was correct. 2. Revisited the decision as related to the Music component of Music & Art. 3. Academic users are a substantial portion of the library’s active customer base. Service implications Technology implications 4. With the exception of Music, specific discipline expertise isn’t necessary to meet the majority of user demand most of the time. - “Can I have your number, we’ll call back with that answer.” 76

77 “Free to the people” since 1895 Conclusions & Recommendations 1.Allow as much time as possible / feasible to plan, promote (staff & public buy-in) and train for a subject department consolidation. 2.Use graduated cross-staffing to familiarize staff with their colleagues, the resources they’ll need to use, and the patrons or customers they’ll need to serve. 3.Encourage and support staff planning of thorough cross- training. 1.Learn the resources. 2.Learn the questions. 3.Meet your colleagues. 4.Reduce the stress factor. 5.Involve the staff at all levels and solicit their input. 77

78 “Free to the people” since 1895 Conclusions & Recommendations 4. Use your construction delays wisely. Communicate Communicate & Communicate. 78

79 “Free to the people” since 1895 Reference Services Customer Service Model As much as possible separate phone service from desk or walk-up service. Substitute some standing orders for on-demand purchases. ANSI Standards Provide electronic document delivery, including original PDFs. Plain language signage – say it in English. Balance what users use / need and anticipated use vs. acquiring materials because you’ve always bought them. Use data to make your decisions. Survey results Usage ILL and photocopy requests. 79

80 “Free to the people” since 1895 Results of the redesign?  Visitors up 93% Squirrel Hill Library Since 2002  Visitors up 67% Downtown & Business Library Since 2002  Circulation up 42% Hazelwood Library Since reopening in May 2004

81 “Free to the people” since 1895

82 Results of the redesign  Increased circulation and registrations  Many more users  Library as a destination  The library is easy to use and understand.  No secret handshake is necessary.

83 “Free to the people” since 1895 The process of innovation is not simply an act. It is not just design, or market analysis, or investment, or entrepreneurship….It is all of these, a complex sequence of steps. And it is all the more complex because there is nothing automatic about it. The engines of innovation are human beings. Daniel V. De Simone

84 “Free to the people” since 1895 Jumpstarting a 105 Year-old Community Icon   ml Beth Dempsey, “Power Users,” Library Journal. Vol. 130 No. 20. December p

85 “Free to the people” since 1895 Your presenters  Richard Kaplan  Karen Rossi


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