4LandsideLandside areas include parking facilities, public transportation, terminal building and all utilities that support the operations of terminals.All these facilities associated with the movement of passengers and their baggage.
5Landside Facilities PASSENGER MOVEMENT TERMINAL BUILDING BAGGAGE HANDLINGLANDSIDEFor Passengers operationsFacilities associated with the movement of passengers and baggage.PUBLICTRANSPORTATIONPARKING FACILITIES
7Terminal BuildingTerminal building is the main building where passengers embark and disembark aircrafts.*embark = go onboard an aircraft.The terminals are the ‘front door’ to the Airport and serve as the public interface between the airside and landside elements.The main building where passengers embark and disembark aircrafts.Arrival loungeDeparture loungeCheck in countersBaggage conveyor beltImmigration checkCustom checkAnimal & plant quarantineHealth quarantineDriveway to drop and pick passengersSecurity officeBaggage disposal conveyorBaggage collection loungeHuman metal detactorsBaggage x ray machinesInformation panel displaysOther facilitiesRetail shopsToiletsPassengers aerobridgesCCTVPublic PA systemDeparture secured rooms
9The world's largest airport terminal The Hong Kong International Airport passenger terminal building is 1.3 km long and covers an area of acres and is the world's largest single airport building.It also has 48 aircraft parking stands with boarding gates and air bridges, the terminal has a capacity of 45 million passengers a year, arriving on 460 flights every day.Hong Kong
10Airport Terminal Design Pier Finger TerminalsKansai International AirportPiers offer high aircraft capacity and simplicity of design, but often result in a long distance from the check-in counter to the gate (this way called as Contact Pier).Most large international airports have piers, including Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, Frankfurt International Airport, London Heathrow Airport, Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Bangkok International Airport, Beirut International Airport and Miami International Airport.Pier finger terminalThis terminal configuration evolved during the 1950s when gate concourses were added to the simple terminal building designs. A concourse is actually defined as an open space where paths meet. Passengers are usually processed at the simple terminal location and then routed down a "pier" where aircraft are parked in the "finger" slots or gates for boarding.
11Airport Terminal Design Pier Satellite TerminalKLIA AirportThis configuration involves a single terminal where all the ticketing and passenger processing takes place.Connected to this are numerous concourses that lead to one or more satellite structures.Need high speed escalators, monorails or electric-powered carts to reduce walking distances.Pier satellite terminal/ Remote satellite terminalThis configuration involves a single terminal where all the ticketing and passenger processing takes place. Connected to this are numerous concourses that lead to one or more satellite structures. At the end of each concourse the aircraft are parked in a cluster. This increases the distance a passenger must walk to get from one terminal to another or one gate to another. People-mover systems are employed in these settings to reduce these walking distances. These systems can be high speed escalators, monorails or electric-powered carts. This design concept lends itself to a compact central terminal, but is difficult to expand without disrupting airport operations.
12Airport Terminal Design Transporter TerminalTampa AirportIn this concept passengers are transported to and from the building to the parked airplane.With this concept, aircraft can be parked remotely from the terminal buildings thus increasing the amount of aircraft embarking and disembarking passengers.Airplane taxiing time to and from the runway is decreased as well as reduce the amount of aircraft engine noise around the terminal.transporter terminal (remote aircraft parking concept)This concept is currently in use at Dulles International Airport and Tampa International Airport. In this concept passengers are transported to and from the building to the parked airplane. The mobile lounge can also be used as holding rooms for waiting passengers at gate positions. Airplanes are parked at gates placed along parallel rows. Several sets of parallel parking rows can be created as increased traffic deems such expansion necessary. This design has excellent expansion capabilities and can maintain the pace with increased airport usage. With this concept, aircraft can be parked remotely from the terminal buildings thus increasing the amount of aircraft enplaning and deplaning passengers. Airplane taxiing time to and from the runway is decreased as well as the amount of aircraft engine noise around the terminal.
13Airport Terminal Design Semicircular TerminalWhere to Locate A TerminalKey Considerations:1. Proximity to Runways and Taxiways2. Accessibility and Road Access3. Room for Expansion4. Availability of Services and Utilities5. Impact on the EnvironmentTerminal Design – Key ConsiderationsBalance Between:Utilization of FacilityFacility InvestmentOperational efficiencyArchitecturalAdvantages:Short distance from check-in area to contact pier.Low cost constructionIncheon Airport
15Four Key Functions of Terminal To process passengers (ticket check, customs clearance, immigration control, safety)To provide various facilities for passenger (shopping, toilets, eating, meeting & greeting, business & conference).To organize passengers before journey by plane.To facilitate a change of transfer mode (ex: from train to plane, from car to plane, etc.).Passenger terminals serve the needs of differenttypes of users by:Processing check-in, security, border controls,Aircraft boarding and disembarking, andBaggage handling for travellers;Providing for passengers waiting for flight or transferring between flightsProviding passenger and airport visitor facilities, including food and beverage, toilets, shopping & other activities.
17Parts of Terminal Building A terminal building could be made for passengers, cargo and for any other specific purposes. It comprises the basic physical parts as Front side of the TerminalVisitors Area and Check-in AreaShop retailsSecurity Hold Area & Baggage Make Up areaPassengers Meet and Greet areaAirlines offices, counters for Tour and Travel agencies counters for Taxi servicesLounges of Business class or Executive Class passengers
18Any airport’s aim is to provide high quality terminal facilities WHY??T o handle the passengers traffic flows effectively .To provide a quality experience for customers, because terminals provide the first and last impressions for visitors to the airport.To become a HUBTo ensure that terminal areas must serves and meets all the criteria that passengers demandWhat passengers expect from the terminal ?Easy Access from road or railEfficient Baggage DeliveryFull range of servicesConvenient parking, ground transportationClean buildingSimple procedures that are not confusingSafe & Secure EnvironmentWhat are the key factors to build an ATTRACTIVE & EFFECTIVE airport terminal building?
19KEY FACTORS OF ATTRACTIVE TERMINAL Ambiance (character/atmosphere of place)CleanlinessUnique ArchitecturalExcellent retail storesMany activities for passengersPleasing & good waiting environmentPassengers friendlyExcellent customer service.Ambiance (character/atmosphere of place)CleanlinessUnique ArchitecturalGood and adequate signageLess walking distance for passengersExcellent retail storesBecoming mini townshipBranded storesMany activities for passengersPleasing & good waiting environmentAccurate informationPassengers friendlyExcellent customer service.Efficient public transportationHotels and rest rooms walking distanceWell located facilities & services (restaurants, etc.)High security level, safe from any threat potential
20KEY FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE TERMINAL Good and adequate signage in the terminalLess walking distance for passengersAccurate informationEfficient public transportationHotels and rest rooms walking distanceWell located facilities & services (restaurants, etc.)High security level, safe from any threat potential.
21Attractive and Effective Terminal Ambiance (character/atmosphere of place)CleanlinessAmbiance Singapore Changi
23Attractive and Effective Terminal Unique ArchitecturalIncheon
24Attractive and Effective Terminal Good and adequate signage
25Attractive and Effective Terminal Less walking distance for passengers
26Attractive and Effective Terminal Dubai Airport Retail ShopsExcellent retail storesBecoming mini townshipBranded stores
27Attractive and Effective Terminal Many activities for passengers
28Attractive and Effective Terminal Pleasing & good waiting environment
29Attractive and Effective Terminal Accurate information
30Attractive and Effective Terminal Passengers friendlyExcellent customer service.Airport:Optimal utilization of spaceSeparate areas for domestic and international paxRigid division between secure and unsecured areasHigh level of securityRevenue maximization (concessions)Low operating maintenance costsSafe operating environmentAttractive buildingAirline:Reasonable operating costsEfficient operations ie. Passenger processing, baggage handling, aircraft parking, etc.Sufficient operational spaceEqual treatment with other airlinesInput into decision makingCommunity:Positive impression for the CommunityHigh level of passenger and airline services
31Attractive and Effective Terminal Efficient public transportationHotels and rest rooms walking distanceWell located facilities & services (restaurants, etc.)High security level, safe from any threat potentialTerminal configuration with highest capacityMaximize use of available terminal resourcesMeet security objectivesIssuesCurbside and check-in space can limit operationsBest practice is steady “funneling” of passengers through successively stricter security screeningsToo many access points reduces securityTerminal with maximum curb area and check-inSteady reduction of area as passengers proceedResources are available under all conditionsOperations tolerant to disruptions and expandableSingle terminal for airport increases vulnerability to disruptions due to accidents or terrorismConstrained design (e.g. single terminal with no free space) not readily expandableSolutionMultiple terminalsExpansion option built into design
34Aer Lingus Self Check-in Kiosk at Dublin Airport Airport Check-in are service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled by an airline or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage they do not wish or are not allowed to carry-on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft.Check-in countersAer Lingus Self Check-in Kiosk at Dublin Airport
35Immigration Duties Immigration responsible for: Monitor persons who leave or enter the country,Checking for appropriate documentation,Arresting people wanted by international arrest warrants.Block the entry of dangerous people to the country.
36Security ChecksConfirming the identity of travelers, Checking a photo ID & transports.Body Screening using Metal Detector GateBaggage scanning using X-ray machineOne of the most important security measures at an airport isconfirming the identity of travelers. This is done by checkinga photo ID, such as a driver's license. If you are travelinginternationally, you need to present your passport
38Custom Duties Customs responsible for : The processing of people, carriers, cargo, and mail into and out of the country.(including animals & hazardous items)The proper collection of taxes, fees, penalties for imported items.The prohibition of narcotics and illegal drugs.
40Baggage Handling System Functions : To process and move the passengers’s baggageFrom the check in area to the departure area orFrom the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area.Goals:FasterSafeGoals of the systemDeliver each bag individually – including transfers – automatically from check-in or the unloading of the aircraft to the outward bound aircraft or baggage claimMaximum delivery times:Wide body aircraft – 30 minutesNarrow body aircraft – 20 minutesDesigned to allow transport of baggage anywhere within the airport to or from the main terminal within 10 minutesMust move the baggage at a rate => the rate at which travelers moveDeliver over 1000 bags per minuteBaggage Handling PrinciplesMinimize the number of handling operationsBaggage handling system consistent with the aircraft movement characteristics (type of passenger, size of aircraft, frequency of flights).Avoid turns & level changes.Ensure that the conveyor belt slopes do not exceed 15 deg.Avoid baggage flow crossing passenger flows, aircraft flows, & air freight flows.Place baggage sorting areas nearby to the apron.Security Considerations In Terminal Design1. Building design separates airside from groundside2. Security Screening Requirements3. Baggage Screening Requirements4. Terminal Surveillance5. Separation of Domestic from International PassengersAirport Ground Access PlansKey Considerations:Entry and Exit Road SystemParking – for passengers, staff, car rentals, shuttle buses, taxis, etcCurbside drop-off pickupPublic TransitRail Systems
41Methods of Moving Bags Manual Methods Multiple luggage pieces in one cartNot automatically sortedAutomatic MethodsDCV – Destination Coded VehiclesEach cart contains a singlepiece of baggageAutomatically sortedLittle or no human interaction required3 Methods of Moving BagsTug & CartLabor intensiveManual MethodTelecarsMultiple luggage pieces in one cartNot automatically sortedTypically used in automated systemsDCV – Destination Coded VehiclesEach cart contains a single piece of luggageAutomatically sortedNot typically used or well testedLittle or no human interaction requiredSelected for the Automated Baggage System at DIASystem Componentsclass computers distributed in eight control roomsRaima Corp. database running on a Netframe systems fault-tolerant NF250 serverHigh speed fiber-optic Ethernet network14 million feet of wiring56 laser arrays400 frequency readers10,000 motors92 PLCs to control motors and track switches3,100 standard baggage carts (DCVs)450 over-sized baggage carts (DCVs)2,700 photocellsOver 17 miles of trackOver 6 miles of conveyors
42DCV – Destination Coded Vehicles DCVs = Destination-coded vehiclesAutomatic Scanner=scan the labelson the baggageConveyors- Like a local ‘roads’Baggage Handling ProcessDCVsMetal cart with wheels on the bottom and a plastic tub on top (mounted on a pivot) that tilts into three positions for automatically loading, carrying and unloading baggageRide on a metal track like a roller coasterTravel up to 24 mphSlow to 4.5 mph for loading and 8.5 mph for unloadingPhoto-electric sensors trigger laser scanner when DCV is present and associate the bag with the DCVLocated every 150 to 200 feet of trackData from scanners is transmitted to a computer that translates it by using a look up table to match the flight number with the appropriate gate
43Baggage Handling using DCVs Check-in: Agents put tag on baggageBag’s owner, Flight number, Final destination, Intermediate connections and airlinesAutomated bar code scannerAfter reading the bar-code, the system will know where that bag is at all times.Hundred of computers keep track of the bag.ConveyorsHundreds of conveyors with junctions connecting all of themSort all of the bags from all of the different airlines and send them to DCVs that are headed to the proper terminal and gateDCVs –Destination Coded VehiclesHeaded to proper destinationMove bag quickly (5 times faster than conveyors)Tracked by computersFunctionality of original designCheck-inBar code labelsBag’s ownerFlight numberFinal destinationIntermediate connections and airlinesAutomated bar code scannerArray of bar-code scanners arranged 360 degrees scan baggageTypically able to scan 90% of luggageLuggage unable to be scanned is routed to another conveyor to be manually scannedTheoretically after reading the bar-code, the system will know where that bag is at all timesConveyorsHundreds of conveyors with junctions connecting all of themSort all of the bags from all of the different airlines and send them to DCVs that are headed to the proper terminal and gateConveyor can only advance when there is an empty cart onto which the leading bag can be placedConveyor speed depends on the rate of delivery of empty cartsBaggage Handling ProcessDCVsTracking computer guides the DCV to its destination by communicating with the radio transponders mounted on the side of each DCVDCVs move via linear induction motors mounted approximately every 50 feet of trackTracked by computersControl PLCsHandle DCV merges into trafficControl track switchesMonitor each of he system’s radio transpondersTrack gate assignments for potential re-routingTrack obstructions or failuresAutomatically detour around a stalled vehicle or jammed trackPerformance TestsBags fell out of the DCVs causing the system to jamEven with a system jam, bags continued to be unloaded because the photo eye at that location could not detect the pile of bags on the belt and could not signal the system to stopDCVs crashed into one another – especially at intersectionsDCV didn’t appear when summonedBaggage incorrectly loaded and misroutedBags were loaded into DCVs that were already full so some bags fell on the tracks causing the carts to jam because the system lost track of which DCVs were loaded or unloaded during a previous jam and when the system came back on-line, it failed to show the DCVs were loadedTiming between the conveyor belts and the moving DCVs was not properly synchronized causing bags to fall between the conveyor and the DCVs. Bags became wedged under the DCVs which were bumping into each other near the load point.ResultInadequate performance caused several delays in the airport’s opening totaling 16 monthsAutomated system was designed with no backup system in placeAn additional 5 months was required to build a traditional tug and cart system at a cost of 51 million dollarsDebts came due prior to the airport’s opening costing the airport 1.1 million dollars day in interest and opportunity costCost overrun totaled over 253 million dollarsTotal Airport cost amounted to more than 4 billion dollarsWhat went wrong?Despite its importance, the baggage handling system was an afterthoughtThe airport was 2 years into construction before the baggage system was consideredThe system would have to be retrofit into the airport as it was designed initially including narrow tunnels and tunnels with sharp turns making it extremely difficult to navigate the DCVsThe time constraint was impossible to overcomeThe 21 month schedule precluded extensive physical testing or simulation of the full system designMore significant problemsReliable DeliverySystem consists of over a hundred waiting lines that feed into each otherBelt will only advance when there is an empty cartEmpty carts will only arrive after they have deposited their loadsCascade of queuesPattern of loads on the system are highly variableDepend on the season, time of day, type of aircraftThe number of possible scenarios is enormousComplexitySystem of this size providing time sensitive delivery of materials on such a large scale had never been done before12x as many carts traveling 10x the speed of carts typically used at that timeNot just an increase in complexity relative to current systems, but a leap in complexitySystem must track tens of thousands of bags going to hundreds of destinations – all in real timeDistributed computer systemIn addition to regular error checking, software must guard against electrical disturbances in the communications, have multiple levels of redundancy and be able to recover from errors very rapidlyMisreadsCompounded by the fact that not only are the scanners required to read data from the tags attached to the baggage, but the information must also be transmitted by radio to devices on each of the DCVs. This duality compounds the errors.Line-Balancing problemAll lines of flow should have balanced serviceNeed to have sufficient empty carts to accommodate the bags coming off the conveyor beltIn a postmortem simulation, the inability of the system to provide adequate empty carts was the primary cause of its failure. A simulation was also completed prior to the start of the project, but due to a lack of communication, BAE was not notified by airport officials of the results; The results stated, in essence, that the system would not work as it was initially designed
45Parking Facilities Public Parking Facility- for airline passengers Near terminal building.Off-Airport Parking- for airline passengersFar away from terminal building, with lower charges.Separate Parking-for airport employeeFar away from terminal area, airport workers using bus go to the terminal.Car Rental Parking-for taxi or airport limousineClose to the terminal building. Pick-up / Drop-off
47Example: Public Transportation at KLIA Taxis and limousine - Airport taxis or airport limousines are provided by Airport Limo. The taxis and limousines are readily available at the Taxi and Limousine counters.Bus - Both public and private buses connect KLIA to several points in Kuala Lumpur and beyond.NadiKLIA bus - Main Terminal Building to LCCTExpress Train- Kuala Lumpur International Airport can be reached by the KLIA Express (ERL) and the KLIA Transit train services.Aerotrain - Main Terminal Building to Satellite Terminal A. The journey between terminals takes under two minutes train is able to transport 250passengers one time.
48Terminal congestion means excessive crowding in the terminal building Terminal congestion means excessive crowding in the terminal building. How To Reduce Terminal Building Congestion ?
49Reducing Terminal congestion Separate/different levels to separate arrival and departing flows.More Terminal Buildings to separate international and domestic.Adequate signage inside terminal building for quick passengers movement .Adequate public transport (Cars, Taxis, Buses) for quick passengers movement .More check-in counters & more immigration counter for quick passengers movement .Arrival and Departure Halls are placed at different levels.Some airport built satellite terminal building for international passengers which are away and isolated from the Terminal Building.Provide more areas for aircraft parking and aerobridgesAdequate signage to public facilities, Adequate public transport (Cars, Taxis, Buses) for quick movement .More check-in counters & more immigration counter for faster passenger movements49