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Lecture 4: Landside By: Zuliana Ismail. Learning Outcomes Students able to: Describe major terminal design concepts Describe about the passenger movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 4: Landside By: Zuliana Ismail. Learning Outcomes Students able to: Describe major terminal design concepts Describe about the passenger movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 4: Landside By: Zuliana Ismail

2 Learning Outcomes Students able to: Describe major terminal design concepts Describe about the passenger movement and baggage handling. Explain the public transportation at airport

3 Airside Landside

4 Landside areas include parking facilities, public transportation, terminal building and all utilities that support the operations of terminals. All these facilities associated with the movement of passengers and their baggage.


6 Terminal Building

7 Terminal building is the main building where passengers embark and disembark aircrafts. *embark = go onboard an aircraft. The terminals are the ‘front door’ to the Airport and serve as the public interface between the airside and landside elements.


9 The world's largest airport terminal The Hong Kong International Airport passenger terminal building is 1.3 km long and covers an area of acres and is the world's largest single airport building. It also has 48 aircraft parking stands with boarding gates and air bridges, the terminal has a capacity of 45 million passengers a year, arriving on 460 flights every day.

10 Airport Terminal Design Piers offer high aircraft capacity and simplicity of design, but often result in a long distance from the check-in counter to the gate (this way called as Contact Pier). Most large international airports have piers, including Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, Frankfurt International Airport, London Heathrow Airport, Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Bangkok International Airport, Beirut International Airport and Miami International Airport. Kansai International Airport Pier Finger Terminals

11 This configuration involves a single terminal where all the ticketing and passenger processing takes place. Connected to this are numerous concourses that lead to one or more satellite structures. Need high speed escalators, monorails or electric-powered carts to reduce walking distances. Pier Satellite Terminal Airport Terminal Design KLIA Airport

12 Tampa Airport Transporter Terminal Airport Terminal Design In this concept passengers are transported to and from the building to the parked airplane. With this concept, aircraft can be parked remotely from the terminal buildings thus increasing the amount of aircraft embarking and disembarking passengers. Airplane taxiing time to and from the runway is decreased as well as reduce the amount of aircraft engine noise around the terminal.

13 Advantages: Short distance from check-in area to contact pier. Low cost construction Incheon Airport Semicircular Terminal Airport Terminal Design

14 What are the functions of Terminal Building?

15 Four Key Functions of Terminal To process passengers (ticket check, customs clearance, immigration control, safety) To provide various facilities for passenger (shopping, toilets, eating, meeting & greeting, business & conference). To organize passengers before journey by plane. To facilitate a change of transfer mode (ex: from train to plane, from car to plane, etc.).

16 Inside Terminal Building

17 Parts of Terminal Building A terminal building could be made for passengers, cargo and for any other specific purposes. It comprises the basic physical parts as Front side of the Terminal Visitors Area and Check-in Area Shop retails Security Hold Area & Baggage Make Up area Passengers Meet and Greet area Airlines offices, counters for Tour and Travel agencies counters for Taxi services Lounges of Business class or Executive Class passengers

18 Any airport’s aim is to provide high quality terminal facilities WHY?? T o handle the passengers traffic flows effectively. To provide a quality experience for customers, because terminals provide the first and last impressions for visitors to the airport. To become a HUB What are the key factors to build an ATTRACTIVE & EFFECTIVE airport terminal building?

19 KEY FACTORS OF ATTRACTIVE TERMINAL Ambiance (character/atmosphere of place) Cleanliness Unique Architectural Excellent retail stores Many activities for passengers Pleasing & good waiting environment Passengers friendly Excellent customer service.

20 KEY FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE TERMINAL Good and adequate signage in the terminal Less walking distance for passengers Accurate information Efficient public transportation Hotels and rest rooms walking distance Well located facilities & services (restaurants, etc.) High security level, safe from any threat potential.

21 Attractive and Effective Terminal Ambiance (character/atmosphere of place) Cleanliness Ambiance Singapore Changi


23 Attractive and Effective Terminal Unique Architectural Incheon

24 Attractive and Effective Terminal Good and adequate signage

25 Attractive and Effective Terminal Less walking distance for passengers

26 Attractive and Effective Terminal Excellent retail stores Becoming mini township Branded stores Dubai Airport Retail Shops

27 Attractive and Effective Terminal Many activities for passengers

28 Attractive and Effective Terminal Pleasing & good waiting environment

29 Attractive and Effective Terminal Accurate information

30 Attractive and Effective Terminal Passengers friendly Excellent customer service.

31 Attractive and Effective Terminal Efficient public transportation Hotels and rest rooms walking distance Well located facilities & services (restaurants, etc.) High security level, safe from any threat potential

32 Passenger’s Movement

33 Flow chart of an embarking passenger Flow chart of an EMBARKING passenger

34 Check-in Airport Check-in are service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled by an airline or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage they do not wish or are not allowed to carry-on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft. Aer Lingus Self Check-in Kiosk at Dublin Airport Check-in counters

35 Immigration Duties Immigration responsible for: Monitor persons who leave or enter the country, Checking for appropriate documentation, Arresting people wanted by international arrest warrants. Block the entry of dangerous people to the country.

36 Security Checks Confirming the identity of travelers, Checking a photo ID & transports. Body Screening using Metal Detector Gate Baggage scanning using X-ray machine

37 Flow chart of an DISEMBARKING passenger

38 Custom Duties Customs responsible for : The processing of people, carriers, cargo, and mail into and out of the country.(including animals & hazardous items) The proper collection of taxes, fees, penalties for imported items. The prohibition of narcotics and illegal drugs.


40 Baggage Handling System Functions : To process and move the passengers’s baggage From the check in area to the departure area or From the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area. Goals: Faster Safe

41 Methods of Moving Bags Manual Methods Multiple luggage pieces in one cart Not automatically sorted Automatic Methods DCV – Destination Coded Vehicles Each cart contains a single piece of baggage Automatically sorted Little or no human interaction required

42 DCV – Destination Coded Vehicles DCVs = Destination-coded vehicles Automatic Scanner=scan the labels on the baggage Conveyors- Like a local ‘roads’

43 Baggage Handling using DCVs Check-in: Agents put tag on baggage Bag’s owner, Flight number, Final destination, Intermediate connections and airlines Automated bar code scanner After reading the bar-code, the system will know where that bag is at all times. Hundred of computers keep track of the bag. Conveyors Hundreds of conveyors with junctions connecting all of them Sort all of the bags from all of the different airlines and send them to DCVs that are headed to the proper terminal and gate DCVs –Destination Coded Vehicles Headed to proper destination Move bag quickly (5 times faster than conveyors) Tracked by computers

44 Parking Facilities

45 Public Parking Facility- for airline passengers Near terminal building. Off-Airport Parking- for airline passengers Far away from terminal building, with lower charges. Separate Parking-for airport employee Far away from terminal area, airport workers using bus go to the terminal. Car Rental Parking-for taxi or airport limousine Close to the terminal building. Pick-up / Drop-off

46 Public Transportation

47 Example: Public Transportation at KLIA Taxis and limousine - Airport taxis or airport limousines are provided by Airport Limo. The taxis and limousines are readily available at the Taxi and Limousine counters. Bus - Both public and private buses connect KLIA to several points in Kuala Lumpur and beyond. NadiKLIA bus - Main Terminal Building to LCCT Express Train- Kuala Lumpur International Airport can be reached by the KLIA Express (ERL) and the KLIA Transit train services. Aerotrain - Main Terminal Building to Satellite Terminal A. The journey between terminals takes under two minutes train is able to transport 250passengers one time.

48 Terminal congestion means excessive crowding in the terminal building. How To Reduce Terminal Building Congestion ?

49 Reducing Terminal congestion Separate/different levels to separate arrival and departing flows. More Terminal Buildings to separate international and domestic. Adequate signage inside terminal building for quick passengers movement. Adequate public transport (Cars, Taxis, Buses) for quick passengers movement. More check-in counters & more immigration counter for quick passengers movement.

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