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Chapter 29 Review and Discussion. European Justification: Superiority is a Heavy Burden Social Darwinism Social Darwinism Applied Charles Darwin’s theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 Review and Discussion. European Justification: Superiority is a Heavy Burden Social Darwinism Social Darwinism Applied Charles Darwin’s theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 29 Review and Discussion

2 European Justification: Superiority is a Heavy Burden Social Darwinism Social Darwinism Applied Charles Darwin’s theory of Natural selection to sociology Applied Charles Darwin’s theory of Natural selection to sociology Dominant races or classes of people rose to the top through a process of the survival of the fittest Dominant races or classes of people rose to the top through a process of the survival of the fittest Rudyard Kipling poem “White Man’s Burden” – half devil and half child Rudyard Kipling poem “White Man’s Burden” – half devil and half child Europeans were not only superior to others, but they had a moral obligation to teach other people how to more civilized Europeans were not only superior to others, but they had a moral obligation to teach other people how to more civilized

3 What were the political, cultural, and economic reasons that the United States and Europe entered into the New Imperialism? Economic reasons Economic reasons Euro-Americans used economics and technology to create a new global economy Euro-Americans used economics and technology to create a new global economy conquered lands supplied raw materials as well as new markets for manufactured goods. conquered lands supplied raw materials as well as new markets for manufactured goods. Copper for electrical wiring, cotton for textile mills, rubber for transportation, and especially gold and diamonds Copper for electrical wiring, cotton for textile mills, rubber for transportation, and especially gold and diamonds Political motives varied Political motives varied France to avenge the humiliation of the Franco-Prussian War, France to avenge the humiliation of the Franco-Prussian War, British to protect its Indian colony British to protect its Indian colony eagerness of the new German state to become a global power. eagerness of the new German state to become a global power. Cultural motives Cultural motives Missionaries and missionary societies wanted not only to spread the influence of their respective religions around the globe Missionaries and missionary societies wanted not only to spread the influence of their respective religions around the globe abolish slavery and bring monogamy, modern medicine, hygiene, and education to the “heathen.” abolish slavery and bring monogamy, modern medicine, hygiene, and education to the “heathen.” Social Darwinism explained the inferiority of indigenous peoples Social Darwinism explained the inferiority of indigenous peoples

4 technological advances that allowed European nations and the United States to conquer vast new territories? Euro-American domination of the oceans was perhaps most important. Euro-American domination of the oceans was perhaps most important. The Suez Canal was central to the extension of rapid transport. The Suez Canal was central to the extension of rapid transport. Steel ships grew in size, and improvements in engines allowed ships to travel farther with less coal. Steel ships grew in size, and improvements in engines allowed ships to travel farther with less coal. Submarine telegraph cables speeded up communication. Submarine telegraph cables speeded up communication. Gunboats extended possibilities for river travel not available to sailing ships. Gunboats extended possibilities for river travel not available to sailing ships. The discovery and use of quinine reduced malaria-related deaths to levels that stimulated European expansion. The discovery and use of quinine reduced malaria-related deaths to levels that stimulated European expansion. Weapons technology included breechloading repeating rifles, smokeless powder, and machine guns—innovations that indigenous peoples could not reproduce. Weapons technology included breechloading repeating rifles, smokeless powder, and machine guns—innovations that indigenous peoples could not reproduce.

5 Briefly describe the nature and manner of late-nineteenth- century European colonial administration. In most places, local economies underwent drastic restructuring to pay expenses and earn profits. In most places, local economies underwent drastic restructuring to pay expenses and earn profits. The amount of control exerted by European home governments varied widely. The amount of control exerted by European home governments varied widely. regions with large numbers of Europeans, such as Australia and Canada, had more autonomy. regions with large numbers of Europeans, such as Australia and Canada, had more autonomy. Protectorates retained their traditional governments, but Europeans oversaw and advised them. Protectorates retained their traditional governments, but Europeans oversaw and advised them. Many local government schemes involved the cooperation of local elites. Many local government schemes involved the cooperation of local elites.

6 As late as 1879, more than 90 percent of Africa was ruled by Africans. Why then did European nations embark on the sudden “scramble” for Africa? Within ten years, most of Africa was invaded and divided among European colonial powers. Within ten years, most of Africa was invaded and divided among European colonial powers. Egypt, the wealthiest and most heavily populated African nation, fell into heavy debt Egypt, the wealthiest and most heavily populated African nation, fell into heavy debt So what happened? So what happened? allowed Great Britain to assert control over the Egyptian government, especially over the Suez Canal. allowed Great Britain to assert control over the Egyptian government, especially over the Suez Canal. In West Africa In West Africa the French extended the railroad system inland to open trading opportunities the French extended the railroad system inland to open trading opportunities

7 African Resistance Berlin Conference 1884 Berlin Conference 1884 European nations met together to carve up Africa European nations met together to carve up Africa Many African nations rose up to challenge the Europeans. But Failed!! Many African nations rose up to challenge the Europeans. But Failed!! Only Ethiopia and Liberia preserve its independence. Only Ethiopia and Liberia preserve its independence. Emperor Menelik II (Ethiopia)

8 Effects of Imperialism on Africa Imperialists profited from African colonies by obtaining natural resources Imperialists profited from African colonies by obtaining natural resources Schools set up taught Africans that European ways were best Schools set up taught Africans that European ways were best Imperialism contrary to western ideals of liberty and equality Imperialism contrary to western ideals of liberty and equality

9 South Africa’s Long Struggle With Apartheid In 1910, South Africa won self-rule from Britain. Over the next decades, the white minority government imposed apartheid. What is that? a system of racial laws which separated the races and kept the black majority in a subordinate position.

10 The Policy of Apartheid Would continue until 1992.

11 Imperialism in Latin America from 1869 to 1914 Latin American economy Latin American economy focused on exporting raw materials, (agricultural goods) focused on exporting raw materials, (agricultural goods) Latin American countries were not colonized. Why? Latin American countries were not colonized. Why? part because of the Monroe Doctrine—but had to accept “free- trade imperialism.” part because of the Monroe Doctrine—but had to accept “free- trade imperialism.” Europe and the U.S. invested heavily in South American railroads using their own equipment and expertise. Why? Europe and the U.S. invested heavily in South American railroads using their own equipment and expertise. Why? Imported equipment ensured that Latin American steel and machinery industries had no chance to develop. Imported equipment ensured that Latin American steel and machinery industries had no chance to develop. Who paid for these internal improvements? Who paid for these internal improvements? Latin Nations regularly fell into debt Latin Nations regularly fell into debt The United States sent troops to Latin America to ensure repayment of loans. The United States sent troops to Latin America to ensure repayment of loans. U.S. dominates the Western Hemisphere! U.S. dominates the Western Hemisphere! Gained controlled of the Panama Canal Gained controlled of the Panama Canal intervened militarily in Cuba, particularly after the Spanish- American War. intervened militarily in Cuba, particularly after the Spanish- American War. acquired Puerto Rico from the Spanish government after that war. acquired Puerto Rico from the Spanish government after that war.

12 Southeast Asia France: Indochina (modern day Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos France: Indochina (modern day Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos British: India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo British: India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo Germany: Pacific islands Germany: Pacific islands U.S: Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, and Cuba U.S: Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, and Cuba Netherlands: Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia) Netherlands: Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia)

13 How did the New Imperialism affect Southeast Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Hawaii? Before 1869 Before 1869 much of East Asia had already been claimed by colonial powers. much of East Asia had already been claimed by colonial powers. Impact of the Suez Canal Impact of the Suez Canal did not encourage Asian colonization; rather, it was because of those colonies that the canal was built. did not encourage Asian colonization; rather, it was because of those colonies that the canal was built. After 1869 After 1869 the British assumed control over the remainder of Burma and Malaya, and the Dutch consolidated control of the East Indies. the British assumed control over the remainder of Burma and Malaya, and the Dutch consolidated control of the East Indies. The only independent state in the region was Siam. The only independent state in the region was Siam. Large numbers of Chinese and Indians were brought into those colonies to fill shortages of labor. Large numbers of Chinese and Indians were brought into those colonies to fill shortages of labor. What role did Christian missionaries play? What role did Christian missionaries play? Western education also had important effects on indigenous peoples. Western education also had important effects on indigenous peoples.


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