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Analyzing Business Opportunities Ray Massey Commercial Ag Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Analyzing Business Opportunities Ray Massey Commercial Ag Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analyzing Business Opportunities Ray Massey Commercial Ag Program

2 Reasons businesses fail Insufficient liquidity – not enough cash to meet obligations when they come due. Insufficient solvency – not enough assets to pay off debts. Insufficient profitability – not enough revenue to cover expenses.

3 Accounting Equation: Assets Liabilities Net Worth

4 Financial Objective: increase net worth Assets -Liabilities Net Worth

5 Balance Sheet December 31, 2007 _ Assets Current Term Liabilities Current Term Net Worth (Equity)

6 Balance Sheet Date is critical Snapshot of the financial health of a business at a point in time Provides information regarding questions of net worth, debt and assets

7 Balance Sheet Beginning Balance SheetEnding Balance Sheet Asset Liability Equity Profit

8 Financial Fact: Gross Income Expenses Net Income Family Withdrawals Change in Net Worth

9 Financial Feat: Increasing Net Worth Gross Income Expenses Net Income Family Withdrawals Change in Net Worth

10 Balance Sheet Beginning Balance SheetEnding Balance Sheet Income Statement Revenue - Expense Net Income Asset Liability Equity

11 Income Statement Looking at a period of time (1 year) Important to distinguish between – cash inflow and outflow – Income and expenses Helps manage production, finance and marketing Provides information on productivity

12 Financial Statements Aid in tracking progress toward goals Provide information for making decisions which promote achieving goals

13 Ratio Analysis Return on assets – ROA = (Net income + Interest) / Total Assets Return on Equity – ROE = Net income / Total Equity Leverage – the relationship between ROA and ROE

14 Relationship Between ROA & ROE Return on Assets Return on Equity D/A =.5; i = 10% D/A =

15 Cost Concepts Fixed and Variable Costs Cash and Non-cash Costs Sunk Costs

16 Fixed and Variable Costs Fixed Costs - those not affected by how much an asset is used. Variable Costs - those which are proportional to how much an asset is used.

17 Fixed Costs Cost per unit of output decreases as quatity of output increases DIRTI 5 – Depreciation – Interest – Repairs – Taxes – Insurance

18 Variable Costs Cost per unit of output remains constant with the quantity of output. Examples – Feed – Veterinary and Medicine – Fuel – Labor

19 Which of the following costs are fixed and which are variable? Purchased Feed Repair on Equipment Maintenance of Buildings Bull Purchase Vaccinations

20 Average Fixed and Variable Costs

21 Total Fixed and Variable Costs

22 Cash and Non-cash Costs Cash Costs - costs incurred when inputs are purchased for production Examples – Wages – Purchased Feed – Fuel – Supplies

23 Cash and Non-cash Costs Non-cash Costs - implicit costs which do not require a present outlay of cash when the input is used. Examples – Unpaid Family Labor – Interest on Owner’s Equity – Depreciation

24 Sunk Cost A cost which has been incurred already. A sunk cost can be fixed or variable – Depreciation is a fixed sunk cost – Feed is a variable sunk cost once the feed has been fed.

25 Necessary and Postponable Costs Necessary Costs - costs associated with essential functions Postponable Costs - costs which are critical but which may be postponed for a period in order to save a current cash outlay.

26 Which of the following costs are necessary and which are postponable? Purchased Feed Repair on Equipment Maintenance of Buildings Bull Purchase Vaccinations

27 Partial Budgeting Additions – Added Returns – Reduced Costs Subtractions – Added Costs – Reduced Returns

28 Partial Budgeting Examples Expanding or Contracting Herd Size Purchasing or Leasing Equipment Renting or Purchasing Additional Land Changing Technology – Organic vs conventional production – Compost vs fresh manure production

29 Partial Budgeting and Liquidity Depreciation is no longer an added cost Interest is cash interest rather than an opportunity cost of interest Determine ability to make loan payments

30 Partial Budgets and Risk Look at the worst case scenario Consider interaction with other enterprises – Labor Demands – Equipment Demands Long run or Short run Perspective – Prices – Life of Assets

31 Risk “I have seen something else under the sun: The race is not to the swift or the battle to the strong, nor does food come to the wise or wealth to the brilliant or favor to the learned; but time and chance happen to them all.” Ecclesiates 9:11

32 Sources of Risk Production Risk – risk associated with having less than anticipated yield Price Risk – risk associated with having less than a target price Financial Risk – risk associated with having insufficient cash flow Legal Risk – risk of liability Human Risk – risk associated with human/employee judgement

33 Economic Principle: Risk Return Tradeoff Higher returns accompany higher risks Manage Risk - do not avoid risk Manage risk by – Gathering pertinent information – Taking safe decisions – livestock futures – Paying someone else to take the risk from you – livestock options and other insurance

34 Analyzing Decisions Accounting for Risk Define the possible states of nature – Calving percent of 70%, 80%, 90% – Drought: yields = 1 ton hay, 2 tons, 5 tons Determine different actions to take – Stocking rate – Herd health Estimate outcomes associated with different actions given different states of nature. Make a choice

35 Decision Making Criteria choose action with highest expected return – ignore risk – weighted for probability of outcomes mean-variance analysis - choose action a, if return a > return b and variance a < variance b,. Safety first (or maximin) – choose action with highest minimum outcome Shoot for the Moon (maximax) – choose action with highest maximum outcome

36 Stock moderately StateHigh rainfallAverage rainfallLow rainfall Receipts$95,630$95,075$92,625 Expenses cattle84000 forage2900 supplement600 interest3000 veterinary miscellaneous Total expenses Return to land, operator labor, management and capital Stocking Rate Example

37 Decision StateStock lightlyStock moderately Stock heavily Probability high rainfall ,000.3 average rainfall ,000.6 Low rainfall ,000.1

38 Stocking Rate Decision Decision StateStock lightlyStock moderately Stock heavily Probability high rainfall ,000.3 average rainfall ,000.6 Low rainfall ,000.1 Average Weighted average

39 Keys to Decision Making Major on the major Gather pertinent information Make a decision or plan Write out the plan Have someone keep you accountable to the plan

40 Sources of Risk: Production Risk Select low production risk enterprises Diversify business Maintain cost flexibility Use risk-reducing production practices Invest in extra machine capacity Diversify farm operation geographically Negotiate land lease arrangements Maintain resource reserves Purchase crop insurance Obtain additional information

41 Sources of Risk: Market Risk Hedge on futures market Insure using options market Sell by forward contracts Spread product sales over time Maintain product and harvest cost flexibility Select low-price risk enterprises Diversify business Negotiate land lease arrangements Forward price production inputs Obtain more outlook information

42 Sources of Risk: Financial Risk Keep adequate liquidity Maintain credit reserve Negotiate longer loan repayment periods Hold safe solvency position Develop land leasing strategies Incorporate to limit risk Obtain more accounting information

43 Sources of Risk: Technology Risk – Maintain flexibility – Keep informed of new developments – Lease rapidly changing technology Legal Risk – Maintain insurance program – Keep informed on new regulations – Hire custom and contract work

44 Sources of Risk Human Risk – Plan back-up management – Plan for loss of an employee – Maintain insurance program – Plan for estate transfer – Education and training


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