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2 The Near- Destruction of Deaf Education By Lauren Simerlink Next IndexMusic

3 Grade 9 Social Studies: American History Index Content Standards: Topic: Historical Thinking and Skills Content Statements -Historical events provide opportunities to examine alternative courses of action. -The use of primary and secondary information includes and examination of the credibility of each source *Students will research facts about Milan 1880 and Deafness and organize it into a lesson to be taught to the class Deafness Title

4 StandardsDeafness Early Deaf Edu Pre- Milan Edu Goals Of Milan Methods Theory of Lip reading Realities of Lip reading Lip reading 1 Lip reading 2 Effects LiteracyCognitive Psychological Social Reformation Stigma Summary Works Cited

5  “ deaf”-Partially or completely lacking the sense of hearing  “Deaf”- The culture group comprised of people who use Sign Language as a means of communication. Members may or may not have the ability to hear  “Hearing”- Label assigned to people who use vocal language as a primary means of communication Index Early Deaf EduEarly Deaf Edu. Title

6  Early 1500s- Deaf education began -Ponce de Leon -Beginning of Oralism  Beginning of Sign as an education method -Juan Pable Martin Bonet  1780s- Deaf people in France began learning in Sign Language -Became fully literate and educated (Sturley) Index Deafness Pre-Milan

7  Deaf education continued to be stellar  Deaf people who would have previously had no opportunities were becoming authors, teachers, and leaders in their societies (Sturley)  until… Millan 1880 Index Early Edu.

8  Include Deaf people in the Hearing Community  Improve Deaf literacy and cognitive processes  Prevent a delay in language acquisition (thought to be the result of Sign Language) (“Milan”) Index Pre-Milan Methods

9  Reform all Deaf schools to Oralism  -Lay off Deaf teachers who signed to students  -Hired non- signing Hearing teachers who were trained in the Oralist method  Discourage students from signing  Tell parents not to sign with their children  Encourage Deaf-Blind students who have some site to lip-read (Sturley) Lipreading Index Goals

10  Students learn to recognize the “shapes” of letters/sounds  If words or sounds cannot be heard or lip read, it is easy to guess them from context (Hearing Link) Index Reality Methods

11  Lipreading is drastically misunderstood by many Hearing people  30% comprehension (“Oralism”) -Results in misunderstanding, isolation, embarrassment  Certain sounds look identical  Visibility is affected by many factors -Speed, overbite, smiling, over or under enunciation… (Bauman) Index Lip-reading Theory

12 Voice Index Lip reading

13 Index Effects Lip reading

14 Literacy Cognition Psychology SocialSocial LifeLife Voice

15  Deaf children who were exposed to Sign at an early age read better than Deaf children who were taught with Oralism at an early age (Brown)  Average Deaf 17-year-old -4 th grade reading level -6 th grade math Index Lip-reading

16  Difficulty understanding words with multiple meanings (ex: “ran”)  Passive voice (Burke)  Tenses -(‘s’ and ‘ed’ are hard to hear)  Abstract concepts -Delayed language acquisition (“Effects”) Auditory cortex (purple) is beside Wernicke’s Area (blue) Index Lip-reading

17  Rate of mental illness twice as large as that of the general population (Ladd)  Anger, depression, embarrassment, low self- confidence (Healthy Hearing) Index Lip-reading

18  Deaf people were isolated - Couldn’t sign or speak  Felt awkward in public settings (Van Cleve) Index Reformation Lip-reading

19  1950s- people began to realize Oralism was a failure  Introduced “Total Communication”- speak and sign (Sturley) Index Social Effects Stigma

20  Cannot hear anything  Always need interpreter  Can lip read perfectly  Deaf are stupid (because of the voice)  Hearing people tend to stare (Atcherson) Index Reformation Attitudes Deaf woman Singing “Let It Snow.” She posted this video on YouTube to prove a point about how it feels to not be able to understand another person’s speech.

21  “Deaf” is a culture- not a disability  Millan 1880 almost destroyed the Deaf community  Lipreading is an ineffective means of communication for the Deaf  All Sign Languages are certified languages and can communicate as effectively as spoken languages “Thriller” in ASL Index Bibliography Milan 1880 Stigma

22  American Speech-Langauge-Hearing Association (N.d.). Effects of Hearing Loss on Development. Retrieved from  Atcherson, Samuel R., M.Ed. Stigma and Misconceptions of Hearing Loss: Implications for Healthcare Professionals with Hearing Loss. Retireved from  Bauman, Neil (March 200). Successfully Coping With Hearing Loss. Retrieved from  Fleischer, Doris Zames. Frieda Zames. The Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to Confrontation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.  Brown, Rodger. Social Psychology, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: The Free Press. (R. Burke, personal communication, March 9, 2013).  PBS (March 2007). Oral Education and Women in the Classroom. Retireved from  (n.a.) (n.d.). Oralism and How it Affects the Development of the Deaf Child. Retrieved from  Hearing Link (n.d.). HearingLink: Connecting People. Retrieved from Index Sturley, Nick (n.d.). Milan 1880. Retrieved from Bibliography Summary

23  Healthy Hearing (September 6, 2012). Emotional effects Related to Untreated Hearing Loss. Retrieved from loss/Types/50526-Emotional-effects-linked-to-untreated-hearing-loss-- not loss/Types/50526-Emotional-effects-linked-to-untreated-hearing-loss-- not  Madrid, Martha Manette. The Speech Organs and Their Functions. Retrieved from speech-and-their-function speech-and-their-function  Lad, Paddy and Mike Gulliver, Sarah Batterbury (n.d.). Reassessing Minority Language Empowerment from a Deaf perspective: The other 32 Languages. Retrieved from urypaper0904031.pdf urypaper0904031.pdf  Sturley, Nick (n.d.). Milan 1880. Retrieved from  Van Cleve, John Vickrey. Deaf History Unveiled: Interpretations from the New Scholarship. Washington, D.C. Gallaudet Unviersity press. Index Bibliography Picture Citations

24  F1online. n.d. [Portrait of a little boy with missing two front teeth]. Retrieved from:   Prognathism. n.d. [Example of mandibular prognathism]. Retrieved from:   SamMuslim, DDS Face Lift Dentistry. n.d. [Picture of teeth with overbite]. Retrieved from:   Hearing Therapy Australia. n.d. [Diagram of theory of lipreading]. Retrieved from:  CW Books. n.d. [Picture of books]. Retrieved from:   The Brain. n.d. [Picture of the brain with labels]. Retrieved from: http://www-   Las Vegas Guardian Express. September 15, 2013. [Picture of a depresses man sitting with head in hands]. Retrieved from:   Return Yoga. n.d. [Picture of person sitting alone in crowd]. Retrieved from: Index Text Citations Picture Citations

25  Acoustics ’08 Paris. July 4, 2008. [Picture of Deaf girl with cochlear implant whispering into another girl’s ear]. Retrieved from:   University of Nebraska: Special Education & Communication Disorders. n.d. [Picture of teacher signing to student]. Retrieved from:   WBUR: Boston’s NPR News Station. November 1, 2013. [Picture of a teacher signing to a boy who has a cochlear implant]. to-be-deaf to-be-deaf  Quincy Herald-Whig. September 26, 2012. [Signing for awareness>>QU Deaf Day] Retrieved from: 6mfB3Dw39-KAHAvdyaB54 6mfB3Dw39-KAHAvdyaB54  IBM connecting. n.d. [Deaf church]. Retrieved from: https://encrypted- QChttps://encrypted- QC   SoundBite Hearing System. n.d. [Diagram of inner ear]. Retrieved from:   Milan 1880. n.d. [Pablo’s sign methods]. Retrieved from:   Deaf Expressions. July 27, 2010. [Sign Language is Banned!]. Retrieved from:  Index Picture Citations

26  BBC News. October 15, 2012. [‘I’ve missed a year of school with ADHD]. Retrived from: =img.3..0l10.5275.5793.0.8017. ild+no&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=kkBKkcc6BagbQM%3A%3B1jzWuDeQoSWXMM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%2   Dreamstime. n.d. [Royalty Free Stock Photos:Hands in handcuffs]. Retrieved from: =img.3..0l10.5275.5793.0.8017. ffs&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=TDmNJlpUtj0sdM%3A%3B6VvD0fzxQs6VtM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fthu isolated-over-white-background-image32915138%3B1300%3B957 =img.3..0l10.5275.5793.0.8017. ffs&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=TDmNJlpUtj0sdM%3A%3B6VvD0fzxQs6VtM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fthu isolated-over-white-background-image32915138%3B1300%3B957   DeafGeoff. March 3, 2012. [Lipreading:Examples of sounds and what mouths look like when saying them]. Retrieved from:   B4tea: Daily Dose of News for your healthy lifestyle. n.d. [Picture of a woman’s lips].   GeekAlerts: Gadgets for Geeks. October 10, 2011. [I’m a Man Beard]. Retrieved from: =img.3..0l10.5275.5793.0.8017. &tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=KiUXimBXzFSQrM%3A%3B- =img.3..0l10.5275.5793.0.8017. &tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=KiUXimBXzFSQrM%3A%3B- Index Video Citations Picture Citations

27  YouTube music Awards. Deaf Girl Signing ‘Let it Snow.’ Retrieved from: vXXE vXXE  YouTube Music Awards. Thriller in ASL. Retrieved from: 8o 8o  Lauren Simerlink. A point about lip reading. Index Picture Citations

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