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Unit 4, Lesson 20 National Health Standards 1.5 and 6.1.

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1 Unit 4, Lesson 20 National Health Standards 1.5 and 6.1

2  Puberty Growth and development of human bodies capable of producing offspring  Estrogen Hormone produced in ovaries that stimulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics and affects menstrual cycle

3  Secondary Sex Characteristics Physical and emotional changes occurring during puberty Widening of hips, breast development, beginning of menstruation, pubic and underarm hair

4  Accept physical changes Most noticeable between ages of 8 and 15 Affected by heredity, diet, health status, and health habits Body image – perception of one’s appearance

5  External Reproductive Organs Mons veneris  Fatty tissue covering the front of the pubic bone  Serves as a protective cushion for internal organs Labia majora  Heavy folds of skin surrounding the opening of the vagina

6  Labia minora Two smaller folds of skin located within the labia majora Clitoris and openings of the urethra and vagina located here

7  Clitoris Small structure above urethra opening  Hymen Thin membrane stretching across the opening of the vagina 1 p9815,00.html&docid=wV59T3pS2A4fTM&imgurl= jpg&w=460&h=300&ei=McO6T4HqN7CHsALLk4WLDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=161&vpy=157&dur=4797&hovh=181&hovw=278&tx=138&ty=127&sig= &page=1&tbnh=10 6&tbnw=163&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:74 1

8  Internal Reproductive Organs Ovaries  Glands that produce ova and estrogen  In lower abdomen  Born with 200,000 – 400,000 immature ova  About 375 of these will mature and be released in a lifetime

9 Ovulation  release of mature ovum from one of the ovaries Fallopian tubes  Tube through which ovum moves from ovaries to the uterus  Each tube about 4 inches long

10  Close to an ovary  End of each tube shaped like a funnel  Where fertilization usually occurs  If ovum not fertilized, disintegrates and leaves body

11 Uterus  Muscular organ that receives and supports fertilized ovum  Contracts during childbirth Cervix  Lowest part of uterus connecting to the vagina

12  Vagina Muscular tube connecting the uterus to the outside of the body Organ for sexual intercourse Birth canal Passageway for menstrual flow 2 isch&tbnid=c-m3iY2nSpcCUM:&imgrefurl= system/&docid=7114tzmxi4Ak2M&imgurl= reproductive-system- thumb.jpg%253F9d7bd4&w=439&h=357&ei=M8a6T7fyEauDsALYvYmLDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=801&v py=146&dur=1672&hovh=202&hovw=249&tx=116&ty=82&sig= &page=1&tbnh= 140&tbnw=172&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:78 2

13  Pads, panty shields or liners, and tampons Used to absorb menstrual flow  Reduce cramps Warm bath Moderate exercise Reduce caffeine intake

14  Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Physical and mental symptoms affecting a female a week to 10 days prior to menstruation Weight gain, bloating, cramping, swollen breasts, headache, backache, constipation, mood swings, cravings, anxiety, depression

15  Missed menstrual cycle Amenorrhea – absence of menstruation Underdeveloped reproductive organs, poor general health, emotional health Overtraining, eating disorders, drastic weight loss, anemia, reduction in red blood cell levels caused by stress, pregnancy

16  Pelvic examination Pap smear - screening test in which cells scraped from cervix examined to detect cervical cancer  Yeast Infection Vaginal infection caused by a fungal organism Thick malodorous discharge, labia and vaginal itching, painful urination

17  Toxic Shock Syndrome Severe illness when vaginal bacteria secretes a toxin and gets into bloodstream Occurs in females using tampons

18  Female Infertility Impaired ability to get pregnant Not the same as sterility Ovulation – biggest factor

19  Practice abstinence from sex  Ask doctor  Practice good menstrual hygiene habits  Choose habits to lessen cramps  Keep record of menstrual cycle  Perform monthly breast self-exam  Seek medical help when signs of infection

20  Most common type of cancer in women  Risk factors: Being over 50; having no pregnancies; first child after 30; family history Complete self-exam; regular medical check-ups

21  Options in treatment of breast cancer: Lumpectomy – lump and small amount of surrounding tissue removed Partial mastectomy – lump, some breast tissue, lining over chest muscles under the tumor, and some lymph nodes are removed

22 Total mastectomy – entire breast and possibly a few lymph nodes removed These procedures often followed by radiation or chemotherapy Early detection and treatment increases chances of successfully treating breast cancer

23  Usually occurs every 28 days  Length and regularity vary  Menstruation often lasts 5 days  Days 1-5 – Menstruation  Days 6-12 – uterine lining thickens preparing for ovulation and possible pregnancy

24  Days – Ovulation  Days – Corpus luteum (temporary gland secreting progesterone) secretes hormones to support pregnancy Created when burst follicle closes Progesterone – hormone that changes the lining of the uterus

25  Days – corpus luteum disintegrates if ovum not fertilized Progesterone no longer secreted Cells in lining of uterus die Unfertilized ovum disintegrates Menstrual cycle begins again

26  Pituitary gland increases production of luteinizing hormone Travels through bloodstream to testes causing them to secrete testosterone Testosterone hormone that produces make secondary sex characteristics

27  Secondary sex characteristics: Taller, longer and heavier bones, broader shoulders, deepening voice, facial, pubic, and body hair growth, formation of sperm, enlargement of external sex organs

28  Changes occur between ages 12 and 15  Affected by: heredity, diet, health habits, and health status

29  External Reproductive Organs Penis  Used for urination and reproduction Scrotum  Sac-like pouch hanging under the penis  Holds the testes  Helps regulate the temperature of the testes

30 3 3 mg.1.1.0l j1j5j0j qf- mY5gmyDI#hl=en&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=external+male+organs&oq=external+male&aq=3&aqi=g6g- S4&aql=&gs_l=img.1.3.0l6j0i24l j nTDI6G5Jg8w&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.,cf.osb&fp=9e63c58396c6945e&biw=1280& bih=653

31  Sperm Male reproductive cells Made up of a head – containing the nucleus of the cell, a body, and a tail About 1/6000 th of an inch long Make up 2 – 5% of semen 4 sEeSMM:&imgrefurl= Nn0mmyNM&imgurl= hDfKBsgKqsZSLDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=496&vpy=178&dur=3797&hovh=201&hovw=251&tx=141&ty=95&sig= &page= 1&tbnh=130&tbnw=163&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:92 4

32  Testes Divided into several sections filled with seminiferous tubules – coiled tubules where sperm are produced Spermatogenesis – process by which sperm are produced  A result of a hormone produced by the pituitary gland 5 mgrefurl= sa-i /male-testes-tubules-seminiferous-lobules- label.htm&docid=wOgF- OIuhdSj6M&imgurl= W5OdSssALgvoiLDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=309&vpy=340&dur=4250&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=134&ty=145&sig= &page=1&tbnh=122&tbnw=163&start=0&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:0,i:116 5

33  Epididymis comma shaped structure along the upper rear surface of the testes Sperm mature here Some are stored here, but most move to the vas deferens

34  Vas deferens Two long, thin tubes – passageway and a storage space for sperm Extend from epididymis into the abdomen Walls are lined with cilia

35 Contractions of vas deferens and action of cilia move sperm Circle the bladder and connect with ducts of the seminal vesicles to form ejaculatory duct 6 com/2009/08/14/herbal-remedy-for-testes-infection/&docid=INN4319jTY5L4M&imgurl= content/uploads/2009/08/testes-infection.jpg&w=400&h=286&ei=T4K7T- W5OdSssALgvoiLDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=173&vpy=330&dur=4625&hovh=190&hovw=266&tx=171&ty=79&sig= &page=1&tbn h=125&tbnw=176&start=0&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0,i:101 6

36  Seminal vesicles Two elongated sac-like glands at base of bladder secrete a fluid rich in sugar that nourishes sperm and helps them move Make up 60% of fluid in ejaculate

37  Ejaculatory duct Short straight tube passes into prostate gland and opens into the urethra Urethra serves as passageway for sperm and urine to leave the body

38  Prostate gland Produces a fluid that keep sperm alive About the size of a chestnut Located beneath the bladder and surrounds the urethra

39  Cowper’s glands Located beneath the prostate gland Two small glands about the size of peas Secrete a clear, lubricating fluid into the urethra as part of the semen

40  Semen Fluid released by the reproductive tract Contain sperm and fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostate glands, and Cowper’s glands

41  Erection Process that occurs when the penis swells with blood and elongates May be followed by ejaculation

42  Ejaculation Passage of semen from the penis Result of involuntary muscular contractions Penis will return to non-erect state after ejaculation

43  Circumcision Surgical removal of the foreskin from the penis Usually performed second day after delivery May reduce the risk of urinary infections and cancer of the penis

44  Males without foreskin removed should pull back skin to clean well to prevent smegma from collecting  Smegma is a substance that forms under the foreskin, consisting of dead skin and other secretions. 7 7 Meeks, Linda. Heit, Philip. Page, Randy. Health and Wellness. McGraw-Hill Glencoe p. 238.

45  Inguinal hernia During development, testes pass from abdomen into scrotum through the inguinal canal During 7 th month of pregnancy, the canal closes to keep the intestines from passing into the scrotum

46  Sometimes canal doesn’t close completely and intestines pass into the canal  This causes a inguinal hernia  Can be painful  Can be repaired surgically

47  Mumps cause sterility after puberty? Mumps are a viral infection affecting the salivary glands Mumps usually occur during childhood There is a vaccine to prevent mumps Mumps “can” affect the testes

48  Virus causes swelling of testes – the seminiferous tubules “may” be crushed, causing them to be incapable of producing sperm  This will cause sterility – inability to produce offspring

49  Digital Rectal Examination Used to examine males for symptoms of prostate cancer Physician inserts a finger into the rectum and examines the internal reproductive organs and the rectum

50  American Cancer Society recommends male over the age of 40 have an annual digital rectal exam  Prostate cancer is 2 nd most common cancer in males  An enlarged prostate is a major symptom of this cancer

51  Testicular Self-Examination Testicular cancer is one of most common cancers among males 15 – 34 Best way to detect is to perform a self-exam Check for lumps or tenderness If detected early, high rate of cure

52  Male infertility Infertility means the ability to produce offspring is impaired Prime cause among males concern the sperm Sperm can be affected by mumps, STDs, injuries, or hormone disorders

53  Some risks can be controlled Exposure to STDs Tobacco and marijuana use Intense exercise over a period of time Excessive use of alcohol

54  Practice abstinence from sex  Bend at knees, keeping back straight  Wear protective clothing when participating in sports and physical activities

55  Perform testicular examinations  Regular medical check-ups  Seek medical help when signs of infection are present  Bathe or shower daily  Maintain a positive body image

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