2Boundaries Boundaries are what create states. A boundary is: an invisible line marking the extent of a states territory.How these line are created and the fact that it is a shared piece of land with another state can cause conflict.
3Boundary – a vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above, dividing one state territory from another.
4Boundary Basics Three determinants: Geometric Physical Ethnographic/Cultural
5Types of Boundaries Geometric boundaries – based on grid systems eg. Boundary between the US and CanadaPhysical-political boundaries – follow an agreed-upon feature in the physical geographic landscape.eg. Boundary between the US and Mexico
6Geometric BoundariesUsing a latitude or longitude line to determine boundary.Drawing straight line boundaries.49th parallel
7Antecendent boundarya boundary that existed before human settlement
13Ethnographic Boundaries ReligiousLanguageWould be easiest, however they are hardest to enforce and establishLines between cultures can be ambiguous and fluid
14Religious Boundaries Do not happen often Muslim Pakistan and Hindu IndiaCatholics and Protestants
15Language Boundaries Unifying a state. Used to create new borders after WWI
16Berlin ConferenceEuropean countries forewent the ‘nation-state’ model completely disregarding the ethnic diversity of the continent and placed conflicting ethnic groups together setting them up for unrest at their infancy.
18Boundaries, Control, and Disagreements Disagreements can lead to conflictConflict meaning military engagementThere have been several agreements forged to curb military deployment.Organizations include:NATOCENTOSEATO https://history.state.gov/milestones/ /seatoNorth Atlantic Treating Organization-Southeast Asian Treating Organization-Central Treaty Organization
19Generally, these organizations were established to stop the spread of communism and force states around the world to “pick a side”US v. Soviet Union
20Warsaw Pact and Satellite States Was created in reaction to the Warsaw Pact which united countries under Soviet Communism.Countries that were apart of the Warsaw Pact were considered to be ‘satellite states’.This created a cultural boundary known as the “Iron Curtain”
25Central AmericaNicaragua Contra supported groups by US
26Shatterbelt regions have a history of unrest and was ripe for communist and democratic control but it never really stuck.Geographically they tended to be isolated, mountainous regions with little governmental control.
27Buffer StateNeutral countries that lye between two conflicting states.Mongolia has been an example of conflicts between China and the Soviet Union
28Theories of Control and Political Power The Heartland TheoryThe Rimland TheoryThe Domino Theory
29GeopoliticsGeopolitics – the interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations.
30Classical Geopolitics German Schooleg. Ratzel’s organic state theoryBritish / American Schooleg. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory
31Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island Who rules the World Island commands the world”
32The Heartland TheoryWhoever owns Eastern Europe and Western Asia has the political power and capital to rule the world.Eastern Europe is extremely rich in agricultural resources.i.e Ukraine could produce enough wheat to sustain a large population.Coal production
33The Heartland Theory Cont Fans: HitlerFails: Hitler- he couldn’t complete with tough resolve and harsh climate.Technological advancementsWhen asked about Russia in 2012 Mitt Romney said “This is without question our No. 1 geopolitical foe”
35The Rimland Theory Nicholas Spykman, “Containment” The belief that forming alliances in necessary to keep the Heartland in check.The heartland is so powerful that no country alone contain it.NATO, SEATO,CENTO are evidence of this theoryAlso, the heartland may control the land, but the rimland controls the sea.
39The Domino TheoryWhen one country experiences rebellion or political disunity, other countries around it will also experience turmoil as a result leading to a domino effect of political instability in the region.Used as propaganda for involvement in Southeast Asia conflicts like Korea and VietnamCritics say US is fine even when Mexico isnt.
40Irredentism US foreign policy model An attempt by one country to provoke coups or separatist movements in another country.Example: Country A tries to spark a separatist movement from a nationality within country B.This can be done through radio, literature, radio programs, or television ads.
41Examples of US irredentism US companies like Facebook are used to spark revolution in Arab countries by communicating the benefits of capitalism and democracy.Used a lot also during WWII and cold war against Germany and Soviet Union
42Other ForcesCentripetal and Centrifugal forces to influences states and their populations.Centrifugal forces- forces that break up a state.Centripetal forces-forces that tend to unite a state.To make an enemy out of the enemy and a hero of yourself