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CIT 742: Network Administration and Security Mohammed A. Saleh 1.

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1 CIT 742: Network Administration and Security Mohammed A. Saleh 1

2 Access Control Lists Perimeters for security for both small and enterprise networks include route, firewalls, internal routers, IDs and many more. If network vulnerabilities are exploited this can cause a major breakdown in a company’s network Inventions of the internet only considered it to be a robust network, overlooking the security issue related to it as a result a lot has been done to implement security - most IP implementations are insecure Some security threats include: 2

3 Cont … Application-layer attacks Rootkits Exploits Backdoors Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks  TCP SYN flood  “Ping of Death” attacks IP spoofing Man-in-the-middle attacks Network reconnaissance 3

4 Cont … Packet sniffers Password attacks  Brute-force attack Port redirection attacks Trojan horse attacks and viruses 4

5 A typical secured network 5

6 Using Cisco IOS Firewall Mitigating some of the more common security threats can be achieved by using the IOS firewall. Features include: Stateful IOS firewall inspection engine  This is your perimeter protection feature  Gives your internal users secure access control on a per- application basis.  Often called context-based access control (CBAC). Intrusion detection  This is a deep packet inspection tool that lets you monitor, intercept, and respond to abuse in real-time 6

7 Cont … ICMP inspection  Permits responses to ICMP packets such as ping and traceroute that come from inside your firewall while denying other ICMP traffic. Per-user firewalls  Personalized, user-specific, downloadable firewalls obtained through service providers.  You can also get personalized ACLs and other settings via AAA server profile storage. DoS detection and prevention  This is a feature that checks packet headers and drops any packets it finds suspicious. 7

8 Cont … Policy-based, multi-interface support  This allows you to control user access by IP address and interface depending on your security policy. Network Address Translation (NAT)  This conceals the internal network from the outside, which increases security. Peer router authentication  This guarantees that routers are getting dependable routing information from actual, trusted sources.  For this to work, you need a routing protocol that supports authentication such as RIPv2, EIGRP, or OSPF. 8

9 Introduction to Access Lists A lot like programming a series of if-then statements  if a given condition is met, then a given action is taken  If the specific condition isn’t met, nothing hap- pens, and the next statement is evaluated Basically packet filters that packets are compared against, categorized by, and acted upon accordingly Once the lists are built, they can be applied to either inbound or outbound traffic on any interface  Applying an ACL causes the router to analyze every packet crossing that interface in the specified direction and take the appropriate action. 9

10 Cont … A packet follows a few important rules when it’s being compared to an access list:  It’s always compared to each line of the access list in sequential order; in other words, it’ll always start with the first line of the access list, then go to line 2, then line 3, and so on.  It’s compared to lines of the access list only until a match is made. Once the packet matches the condition on a line of the access list, the packet is acted upon, and no further comparisons take place.  There is an implicit “deny” at the end of each access list; this means that if a packet doesn’t match the condition on any of the lines in the access list, the packet will be discarded. 10

11 Two types of ACLs 1. Standard ACLs  Use only the source IP address in an IP packet as the condition test  All decisions are made based on the source IP address  They basically permit or deny an entire suite of protocols  They don’t distinguish between any of the many types of IP traffic such as WWW, Telnet, UDP, and so on. 2. Extended ACLs  Can evaluate many of the other fields in the layer- 3 and layer-4 headers of an IP packet  Evaluate source and destination IP addresses, the protocol field in the Network layer header, and the port number at the Transport layer header  Make much more granular decisions when controlling traffic. 11

12 Cont … Names ACLs  Can either be standard or extended Security threats you can mitigate with ACLs:  IP address spoofing—inbound  IP address spoofing—outbound  DoS TCP SYN attacks—blocking external attacks  DoS TCP SYN attacks—using TCP intercept  Filtering ICMP messages—inbound  Filtering ICMP messages—outbound Filtering traceroute 12 Not wise to allow any IP packets coming into a private network that contain the source address of any internal hosts or networks—just don’t do it!

13 Standard ACLs Standard IP access lists filter network traffic by examining the source IP address in a packet. You create a standard IP access list by using the access-list numbers 1–99 or 1300–1999 ACLs are differentiated using a number. Creating an Access-list and Applying it to an Interface  access-list - Configures a single access-list statement into a router’s memory for use in a complete access list that will be applied to an interface  ip access-group - Places an access list on a device’s physical interface A standard ACL should apply closest to the destination an in an “outbound” direction 13

14 Standard ACLs 14 OptionMeaning Identifies an access list by number as a standard or extended list. Also allows the creation and separation of multiple access lists. Permit or denySpecifies the effect of the access-list statement as allowing or blocking the traffic specified. hostname or IP address Specifies the hostname or device’s IP address that will be acted upon in the access-list statement. hostSpecifies a single specific host for the statement. anySpecifies that regardless of the host or device IP, it will match the statement.

15 Cont … access-list 10 deny host  This tells the list to deny any packets from host The default parameter is host.  the router assumes you mean host Wildcard Masking Used with access lists to specify an individual host, a network, or a certain range of a network or networks An example below tells the router to match the first three octets exactly but that the fourth octet can be anything:  Corp(config)#access-list 10 deny  ip access-group 10 in 15

16 Controlling VTY (Telnet) Access Standard ACLs are used to stop unwanted users from telnet access on a large router. You need only to control where the user is coming from—their source IP address. To perform this function, follow these steps: 1. Create a standard IP access list that permits only the host or hosts you want to be able to telnet into the routers. 2. Apply the access list to the VTY line with the access- class command 16

17 Cont … An example of allowing only host to telnet into a router:  Lab_A(config)#access-list 50 permit  Lab_A(config)#line vty 0 4  Lab_A(config-line)#access-class 50 in Because of the implied deny any at the end of the list, the access list stops any host from telnetting into the router except the host , regardless of which individual IP address on the router is used as a target. 17

18 Extended ACLs In the standard IP access list  blocking all access from the sales LAN to the finance department  What if you needed sales to gain access to a certain server on the finance LAN but not to other network services for security reasons? A standard IP access list can’t allow users to get to one network service and not another. A standard ACL won’t make decisions based on both source and destination addresses An extended ACL will 18

19 Extended ACLs Extended access lists allow you to specify:  source and destination addresses  protocol and port number that identify the upper-layer protocol or application Creating an Access-list and Applying it to an Interface  access-list - Configures a single access-list statement into a router’s memory for use in a complete access list that will be applied to an interface  ip access-group - Places an access list on a device’s physical interface 19

20 Extended ACLs options 20 OptionMeaning Identifies an access list by number as a standard or extended list. Also allows the creation and separation of multiple access lists. Permit or denySpecifies the effect of the access-list statement as allowing or blocking the traffic specified. ProtocolSpecifies the protocol to be filtered in the access-list statement. hostname or IP address Specifies the hostname or device’s IP address that will be acted upon in the access-list statement. hostSpecifies a single specific host for the statement.

21 Extended ACLs options 21 OptionMeaning anySpecifies that regardless of the host or device IP, it will match the statement. eqMeans equal to, and specifies the application protocol to be filtered by the statement. Port numberLists the actual port number or protocol for filtering.

22 Extended ACLs Example Corp(config)#access-list 110 deny tcp any host  all TCP traffic to host will be denied, regardless of the destination port Corp(config)#access-list 110 deny tcp any host eq ?  shows you the available options Block Telnet (port 23) to host only  Corp(config)#access-list 110 deny tcp any host eq 23 log  keep in mind that the next line is an implicit deny any by default  Corp(config)#access-list 110 permit ip any any 22

23 Cont … The keyword any represents all hosts on the entire network  is the same command as any  Corp(config)#access-list 110 permit ip

24 Named ACL Allows you to use names to both create and apply either standard or extended access lists Named Access List Commands  ip access-list: Configures a named access list  ip access-group: Places an access list on a device’s physical interface Named ACL options can either be those of the standard or extended. Example  Lab_A(config)#ip access-list standard BlockSales  Lab_A(config-std-nacl)# standard access list and then added a name: BlockSales Notice that router prompt changed 24

25 Named ACL  Lab_A(config-std-nacl)#deny  Lab_A(config-std-nacl)#permit any Lab_A#show running-config  !  ip access-list standard BlockSales  deny  permit any  ! Applying the ACL on the interface  Lab_A(config)#int e1  Lab_A(config-if)#ip access-group BlockSales out 25

26 Time-based ACLs Work a lot like extended ACLs do, but their type of access control is totally time-oriented  specify a certain time of day and week and then identify that particular period by giving it a name referenced by a task  the reference function will fall under whatever time constraints you’ve dictated The time period is based upon the router’s clock  highly recommend using it in conjunction with Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronization. Timed Access List Commands  Time-range: Configures a time range value to be added to an access list as an option to control traffic and access by time 26

27 Cont … 27 OptionMeaning Identifies the time range by name for use in an access-list statement PeriodicSpecifies how the time range will act or be created, allowing specific time values to be set hh:mmSpecifies time values for when the range will start and stop on specific days

28 Example 28

29 Cont … 29 Note: Make sure you test your list on a nonproduction network before you implement the lists on your production network.

30 Monitoring ACLs It’s always good to be able to verify a router’s configuration 30 Access List Verification Commands CommandMeaning Show access-listDisplays all access lists and their parameters configured on the router. This command does not show you which interface the list is set on. Show access-list 110Shows only the parameters for the access list 110. This command does not show you the interface the list is set on. Show ip access-listShows only the IP access lists configured on the router. Show ip interfaceShows which interfaces have access lists set.

31 Network Address Translation The original intention for NAT was to slow the depletion of available IP address space by allowing many private IP addresses to be represented by some smaller number of public IP addresses. When is it best to have NAT  You need to connect to the Internet, and your hosts don’t have globally unique IP addresses.  You change to a new ISP that requires you to renumber your network.  You need to merge two intranets with duplicate addresses. 31

32 Cont … 32

33 Types of NAT Static NAT  This type of NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mapping between local and global addresses one real Internet IP address for every host on your network. Dynamic NAT  This version gives you the ability to map an unregistered IP address to a registered IP address from out of a pool of registered IP addresses Have enough pool of IP addresses Overload NAT  Most popular type of NAT configuration.  It is a form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered IP address—many-to-one—by using different ports Also known as Port Address Translation (PAT) NAT Overload is the real reason we haven’t run out of valid IP address on the Internet 33

34 How NAT works 34

35 Cont… 1. The organization has 4 legitimate IP addresses 2. Client connects with a private IP address as the source IP 3. NAT supplies the client with one public address from the pool as the source address 4. Server has one address which receives the connection 5. When the server replies the source address becomes the destination 6. The NAT receives the reply intended for the private address client 7. Translates back to the private address using the current connection  The number of client computers able to connect simultaneously is limited to the number of legitimate addresses in the pool 35

36 NAT Names Addresses used after NAT translations are called global addresses  usually the public addresses used on the Internet  you don’t need public addresses if you aren’t going on the Internet. Local addresses are the ones we use before NAT translation  The inside local address is actually the private address of the sending host that’s trying to get to the Internet  The outside local address is the address of the destination host The latter is usually a public address (web address, mail server) After translation  The inside local address is then called the inside global address  the outside global address becomes the name of the destination host 36

37 Cont … NAT terms 37 NamesMeaning Inside localName of inside source address before translation Outside localName of destination host before translation Inside globalName of inside host after translation Outside globalName of outside destination host after translation

38 Static NAT configuration 38

39 Cont … The ip nat inside source command identifies which IP addresses will be translated  static translation between the inside local IP address to the outside global IP address The ip nat inside command identifies that interface as the inside interface The ip nat outside command identifies that interface as the outside interface 39

40 Dynamic NAT configuration  Dynamic NAT means we have a pool of addresses that we will use to provide real IP addresses to a group of users on the inside  We do not use port numbers, so we need to have real IP addresses for every user trying to get outside the local network 40

41 Cont … The ip nat inside source list 1 pool todd command tells the router to translate IP addresses that match access-list 1 to an address found in the IP NAT pool named todd 41

42 PAT (Overloading) configuration  shows how to configure inside global address overloading. 42

43 Cont … The differences with the other configurations  The pool of addresses has shrunk to only one IP address and at the end of the ip nat inside source command  It uses the the overload command. 43

44 Verification of NAT 44

45 Questions


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