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Per Holth Tacts & Joint Attention: An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills Per Holth.

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Presentation on theme: "Per Holth Tacts & Joint Attention: An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills Per Holth."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Per Holth Tacts & Joint Attention: An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills Per Holth

3 Tacts & Joint Attention 1. The tact 2. Generic (natural) reinforcement of the TACT 3. Joint attention 4. Why study JA? 5. Operant analysis of JA 6. Research questions 7. Training procedures

4 Per Holth Tact (Skinner, 1957) "a verbal operant in which a given response form is evoked (or at least strengthened) by a particular object or event or a property of an object or event.” "a verbal operant in which a given response form is evoked (or at least strengthened) by a particular object or event or a property of an object or event.” S D  R  S R GEN. COND S D  R  S R GEN. COND The unique relation to a discriminative stimulus, rather than to a specific establishing operation, is obtained by (i) many different reinforcers or (ii) generalized reinforcers. The unique relation to a discriminative stimulus, rather than to a specific establishing operation, is obtained by (i) many different reinforcers or (ii) generalized reinforcers.

5 Per Holth Generalized reinforcement Skinner (1957) Instead of using a great variety of reinforcements, each of which is relevant to a given state of deprivation or aversive stimulation a contingency is arranged between a verbal response and a generalized conditioned reinforcer. Any event which characteristically precedes many different reinforcers can be used as a reinforcer to bring behavior under the control of all appropriate conditions of deprivation and aversive stimulation. (p. 53)

6 Per Holth Establishing conditioned reinforcers correlate with primary reinforcer correlate with primary reinforcer (  blocking) or establish as S D for responses that produce a primary reinforcer establish as S D for responses that produce a primary reinforcer

7 Per Holth Generalized reinforcer: ” Approval ” A common generalized conditioned reinforcer is “ approval. ” It is often difficult to specify its physical dimensions. It may be little more than a nod or a smile on the part of someone who characteristically supplies a variety of reinforcements. Sometimes... it has a verbal form: Right! or Good! ” (p. 54)

8 Per Holth Typical generalized ‘conditioned’ reinforcers 1 To what extent are they typically conditioned in the first place in normally developing children? To what extent are they typically conditioned in the first place in normally developing children? (Combine Fantz with deCasper et al.) (Combine Fantz with deCasper et al.)

9 Per Holth Typical generalized ‘conditioned’ reinforcers 2 - Autocatalytic process? - Additional sources of reinforcement? Monitor smile, nod gaze Observe Novel event Report Novel event Lower frequency of S A s and S  s Higher frequency of mand reinf.

10 Per Holth Typical generalized ‘conditioned’ reinforcers 3 When generalized reinforcers are only established through contrived contingencies, can they be maintained as reinforcers at near- normal rates of back-up (primary) reinforcement?

11 Per Holth An extended verbal episode SD1SD1 S D SOC. RVRV S R GEN. R OBS. (R OBS ) Looking for novel event Novel event Looking for (potential) attention Attention TACT LISTENER’S look, smile, nod, “yes,” “m-hmm,” relevant comments

12 Per Holth Joint attention: A triade

13 Per Holth The concept of JA From ‘Gaze following’ (Scaife & Bruner, 1975) to ‘Theory of mind’ (e.g., Baron-Cohen, 1991)

14 Per Holth Joint Attention in ‘social-cognitive development’ normative patterns of emergence (e.g., Corkum & Moore, 1995) normative patterns of emergence (e.g., Corkum & Moore, 1995) relation to later developing skills: relation to later developing skills: ‘symbolic abilities’ (Hobson, 1993; Mundy, Sigman, & Kasari, 1993), ‘symbolic abilities’ (Hobson, 1993; Mundy, Sigman, & Kasari, 1993), ‘language abilities’ (Baldwin, 1995; Bates et al., 1979; Bruner, 1975; Tomasello, 1988) and ‘language abilities’ (Baldwin, 1995; Bates et al., 1979; Bruner, 1975; Tomasello, 1988) and ‘general social-cognitive processes’ (Baron-Cohen, 1995; Bruner, 1975; Mundy, 1995; Tomasello, 1995). ‘general social-cognitive processes’ (Baron-Cohen, 1995; Bruner, 1975; Mundy, 1995; Tomasello, 1995). a syndrom-specific deficit in autism (e.g., Baron-Cohen, 1989, Mundy & Crowson, 1997; Sigman & Kasari, 1995; Sigman, Kasari, Kwon, & Yirmiya, 1992). a syndrom-specific deficit in autism (e.g., Baron-Cohen, 1989, Mundy & Crowson, 1997; Sigman & Kasari, 1995; Sigman, Kasari, Kwon, & Yirmiya, 1992).

15 Per Holth Definitions “the simultaneous engagement of two or more individuals in mental focus on one and the same external thing” (Baldwin, 1995, p. 132) “the simultaneous engagement of two or more individuals in mental focus on one and the same external thing” (Baldwin, 1995, p. 132) (a) narrow version: “looking where someone else is looking” (a) narrow version: “looking where someone else is looking” (b) broad version includes: “responsive and initiating behaviors as well as the checking of another person’s face...” (Sigman & Kasari, 1995, p. 189) “knowing that another is looking at and experiencing something in the visual world” (Bruner, 1995, p. 7) “knowing that another is looking at and experiencing something in the visual world” (Bruner, 1995, p. 7) “both participants are monitoring the other’s attention to the outside entity... [and] the coordination that takes place in joint attentional interactions is accomplished by means of an understanding that the other participant has a focus of attention to the same entity as the self” (Tomasello, 1995, pp. 105-107) “both participants are monitoring the other’s attention to the outside entity... [and] the coordination that takes place in joint attentional interactions is accomplished by means of an understanding that the other participant has a focus of attention to the same entity as the self” (Tomasello, 1995, pp. 105-107) although JA “... typically refers to coordination of visual attention,...[it] may be achieved through other sensory modalities” (Sarria, Gomez & Tamarit, 1996, p. 49) although JA “... typically refers to coordination of visual attention,...[it] may be achieved through other sensory modalities” (Sarria, Gomez & Tamarit, 1996, p. 49)

16 Per Holth Examples Gaze following Gaze following Monitoring Monitoring Social referencing Social referencing Protoimperative Protoimperative Protodeclarative Protodeclarative

17 Per Holth Gaze following 1

18 Per Holth Gaze following 2

19 Per Holth Gaze following 3

20 Per Holth Gaze following 4

21 Per Holth Monitoring

22 Monitoring 1

23 Per Holth Monitoring 2

24 Per Holth Monitoring 3

25 Per Holth Social referencing 1

26 Per Holth Social referencing 2

27 Per Holth Social referencing 3

28 Per Holth Protoimperative 1

29 Per Holth Protoimperative 2

30 Per Holth Protoimperative 3

31 Per Holth Protoimperative 4

32 Per Holth Protoimperative 5

33 Per Holth Protoimperative 6

34 Per Holth Protoimperative 7

35 Per Holth Protoimperative 8

36 Per Holth Protoimperative 9

37 Per Holth Protoimperative 10

38 Per Holth Protodeclarative 1

39 Per Holth Protodeclarative 2

40 Per Holth Protodeclarative 3

41 Per Holth Protodeclarative 4

42 Per Holth Protodeclarative 5

43 Per Holth Protodeclarative 6

44 Per Holth Protodeclarative 7

45 Per Holth Protodeclarative 8

46 Per Holth Protodeclarative 9

47 Per Holth Protodeclarative 10

48 Per Holth Protodeclarative 11

49 Per Holth Why behavior analysts should study joint attention Autism-specific deficit -- yet early intervention studies lack JA measures Autism-specific deficit -- yet early intervention studies lack JA measures Cognitive psychologists have insisted that JA skills are not learned Cognitive psychologists have insisted that JA skills are not learned Lacking JA skills may be directly related to specific language deficits Lacking JA skills may be directly related to specific language deficits

50 Per Holth A letter to the ME list Does anyone have any ideas on how to develop a program on teaching a child to comment? My son... does not make comments. A purple cow could walk by and he wouldn't mention it. Does anyone have any ideas on how to develop a program on teaching a child to comment? My son... does not make comments. A purple cow could walk by and he wouldn't mention it.

51 Per Holth Why joint attention phenomena are important in verbal and listening skills Consider what happens in their absence Consider what happens in their absence listening skills listening skills ”Look at that!” ”Look at that!” ”There’s a horse with three legs!” ”There’s a horse with three legs!” MANDS MANDS TACTS TACTS

52 Per Holth Mand with no joint attention

53 Per Holth Mand with no joint attention

54 Per Holth Tact with no joint attention ?

55 Per Holth Operant analysis of JA skills Discrimination Discrimination Conditioned reinforcement Conditioned reinforcement Conditional discrimination Conditional discrimination Conjugate reinforcement Conjugate reinforcement Continuous repertoires Continuous repertoires Observing responses Observing responses

56 Per Holth Establish other’s looking, smiling and nodding as S D -- 1

57 Per Holth Establish other’s looking, smiling and nodding as S D -- 2

58 Per Holth Observing responses Dinsmoor (1983) VRExt. SDSD SS RR MIX MULT

59 Per Holth Observing responses Dinsmoor (1983) Reinf. SDSD R

60 Per Holth Observing responses Dinsmoor (1983) Ext. SS R

61 Per Holth Observing responses: Mother’s look as S D Reinf.Ext. SDSD SS RR MIX

62 Per Holth Observing responses: Mother’s look as S  Reinf.Ext. SDSD SS RR MIX

63 Per Holth More on operant principles and JA skills Behavior is very fluid; it isn’t made up of lots of little responses packed together. I hope I will live to see a formulation which will take this fluidity into account. (Skinner, 1968, pp. 20-21) Conjugate reinforcement Conjugate reinforcement Continuous repertoires Continuous repertoires

64 Per Holth Conjugate reinforcement In conjugate reinforcement, the intensity of a continuously available reinforcing consequence is directly controlled by the subject’s rate of responding. (Morgan & Lindsley, 1966) In conjugate reinforcement, the intensity of a continuously available reinforcing consequence is directly controlled by the subject’s rate of responding. (Morgan & Lindsley, 1966) Attention-maintaining responses Attention-maintaining responses

65 Per Holth Continuous repertoires Control of a continuous response dimension by a continuous stimulus dimension. (Wildemann & Holland, 1972) Control of a continuous response dimension by a continuous stimulus dimension. (Wildemann & Holland, 1972) Gaze following Gaze following Imitation Imitation

66 Per Holth Research questions Typical generalized ‘conditioned’ reinforcers Typical generalized ‘conditioned’ reinforcers (a) Can they be maintained as such at near-normal rates of back-up (primary) reinforcement? (a) Can they be maintained as such at near-normal rates of back-up (primary) reinforcement? (b) To what extent are they typically conditioned in the first place? (Combine Fantz with deCasper & Fifer) (b) To what extent are they typically conditioned in the first place? (Combine Fantz with deCasper & Fifer) Continuous repertoires Continuous repertoires Is multiple exemplar training sufficient, or are there additional prerequisites (pivotal skills)? Observing responses Observing responses Can they be prevented/removed by a preponderance of attention as S  ?

67 Per Holth Establishing TACTS in tactless manders establishing normal tact-consequences as reinforcers establishing normal tact-consequences as reinforcers establishing simple joint attention skills establishing simple joint attention skills producing high-rate tact responses in the natural environment producing high-rate tact responses in the natural environment discrimination training with respect to objects and events worth talking about vs. those not worth talking about discrimination training with respect to objects and events worth talking about vs. those not worth talking about

68 Per Holth 1. Establishing normal tact- consequences as reinforcers Nods, smiles, ’attention,’ etc. as S D s for responses that produce reinforcers Nods, smiles, ’attention,’ etc. as S D s for responses that produce reinforcers Different reinforcers, using tokens Different reinforcers, using tokens Stretching the ratio Stretching the ratio Fading the tokens Fading the tokens

69 Per Holth Free-operant reinforcer pretest Response: Hit bell Intrinsic Mix socialSweets Response: Put mark across line Intrinsic Relevant comments Sweets 57 67 2 3

70 Per Holth Free-operant reinforcer pretest Response: Ball into wall Response: Pearls on board 57 2 IntrinsicPraise Sweets IntrinsicSweets Nods & smiles 45 57 22

71 Per Holth Establish other’s looking, smiling and nodding as S D -- 1

72 Per Holth Establish other’s looking, smiling and nodding as S D -- 2

73 Per Holth Remaining problems Potential reinforcers are visible Potential reinforcers are visible Reinforcement is not generalized Reinforcement is not generalized Reinforcement is continuous Reinforcement is continuous

74 Per Holth Different reinforcers – using tokens, stretching the ratio and fading the tokens Reverse chaining Reverse chaining Prompts faded as soon as possible Prompts faded as soon as possible Diversity of back-up reinforcers Diversity of back-up reinforcers Less eye-chatching versions Less eye-chatching versions Marks on paper sheets Marks on paper sheets Done by trainers (and others) gradually more often Done by trainers (and others) gradually more often

75 Per Holth Free-operant reinforcer pretest Response: Hit bell Intrinsic Mix socialSweets Response: Put mark across line Intrinsic Relevant comments Sweets 57 67 2 3

76 Per Holth Free-operant reinforcer pretest Response: Ball into wall Response: Pearls on board 57 2 IntrinsicPraise Sweets IntrinsicSweets Nods & smiles 45 57 22

77 Per Holth Free-operant reinforcer posttest Response: Pearls on board Response: Mark across line 27 Intrinsic Mix social39Sweets Intrinsic Relevant comments 2223 46 Sweets

78 Per Holth Free-operant reinforcer posttest Response: Ball into basket Response: Ball into wall Intrinsic 14 Praise Sweets 20 Intrinsic 48 Nod & smile 81 47Sweets

79 Per Holth Mean - pretest

80 Per Holth Mean - posttest

81 Per Holth 2. Joint attention skills: A step-by-step procedure Gaze following Gaze following Monitoring Monitoring Attention bids Attention bids

82 Per Holth (a) Train Gaze following 1

83 Per Holth (a) Train Gaze following 2

84 Per Holth (a) Train Gaze following 3 Prompt 1

85 Per Holth (a) Train Gaze following 4 Prompt 2

86 Per Holth (a) Train Gaze following 5

87 Per Holth (b) Train monitoring 1

88 Per Holth (b) Train monitoring 2

89 Per Holth (b) Train monitoring 3

90 Per Holth (b) Train monitoring 4

91 Per Holth (b) Train monitoring 5

92 Per Holth (b) Train monitoring 6 (b) Train monitoring 6 Stop!

93 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

94 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

95 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

96 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

97 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

98 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

99 Per Holth (c) Train attention bids

100 Per Holth 3. Producing high-rate tact responses in the natural environment TRAIN ”WHAT’S THAT” AS A MAND Pictures Pictures Objects in the room Objects in the room Behavior Behavior Objects and events outside Objects and events outside

101 Per Holth Differential generalized reinforcement: Familiar objects loose their control because the community eventually withholds reinforcement except under special conditions. Only objects which are unusual in some respect or which occur in unusual surroundings, are important to the listener and hence provide the occasion for reinforcing the speaker[ ‘ s behavior]. (pp. 89-90)

102 Per Holth 4. Discrimination training with respect to objects and events worth talking about: What’s missing /what’s new? What’s missing /what’s new? What’s changed? What’s changed? What’s weired/strange in the room/on a person? What’s weired/strange in the room/on a person? Arranged continuously  intermittently Reported immediately  delayed  to someone else

103 Per Holth A letter to the ME list Does anyone have any ideas on how to develop a program on teaching a child to comment? My son... does not make comments. A purple cow could walk by and he wouldn't mention it. Does anyone have any ideas on how to develop a program on teaching a child to comment? My son... does not make comments. A purple cow could walk by and he wouldn't mention it.

104 Per Holth Establishing TACTS in tactless manders Video: Video: 3.05Reinforcer test 3.05Reinforcer test 5.20One prompt (marks)  nods 5.20One prompt (marks)  nods 7.00Nods & smiles 7.00Nods & smiles 7.36Toy figures  cards  fruits  behavior 7.36Toy figures  cards  fruits  behavior 9.50Destroyed objects 9.50Destroyed objects 10.24??? 10.24??? 11.40 11.40


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