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CHAPTER 3. Transport Layer 3-2 Transport services and protocols provide logical communication between app processes running on different hosts transport.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3. Transport Layer 3-2 Transport services and protocols provide logical communication between app processes running on different hosts transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3

2 Transport Layer 3-2 Transport services and protocols provide logical communication between app processes running on different hosts transport protocols run in end systems – send side: breaks app messages into segments, passes to network layer – rcv side: reassembles segments into messages, passes to app layer more than one transport protocol available to apps – Internet: TCP and UDP application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical logical end-end transport

3 Transport Layer 3-3 Internet transport-layer protocols reliable, in-order delivery (TCP) – congestion control – flow control – connection setup unreliable, unordered delivery: UDP – no-frills extension of “best- effort” IP services not available: – delay guarantees – bandwidth guarantees application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical application transport network data link physical logical end-end transport

4 Transport Layer 3-4 Multiplexing/demultiplexing application transport network link physical P1 application transport network link physical application transport network link physical P2 P3 P4 P1 host 1 host 2 host 3 = process= socket delivering received segments to correct socket Demultiplexing at rcv host: gathering data from multiple sockets, enveloping data with header (later used for demultiplexing) Multiplexing at send host:

5 Transport Layer 3-5 How demultiplexing works host receives IP datagrams – each datagram has source IP address, destination IP address – each datagram carries 1 transport- layer segment – each segment has source, destination port number host uses IP addresses & port numbers to direct segment to appropriate socket source port #dest port # 32 bits application data (message) other header fields TCP/UDP segment format

6 Transport Layer 3-6 Connectionless demultiplexing recall: create sockets with host- local port numbers: DatagramSocket mySocket1 = new DatagramSocket(12534); DatagramSocket mySocket2 = new DatagramSocket(12535); recall: when creating datagram to send into UDP socket, must specify ( dest IP address, dest port number) when host receives UDP segment: – checks destination port number in segment – directs UDP segment to socket with that port number IP datagrams with different source IP addresses and/or source port numbers directed to same socket

7 Transport Layer 3-7 UDP: User Datagram Protocol [RFC 768] “no frills,” “bare bones” Internet transport protocol “best effort” service, UDP segments may be: – lost – delivered out of order to app connectionless: – no handshaking between UDP sender, receiver – each UDP segment handled independently of others Why is there a UDP? no connection establishment (which can add delay) simple: no connection state at sender, receiver small segment header no congestion control: UDP can blast away as fast as desired

8 Transport Layer 3-8 UDP: more often used for streaming multimedia apps – loss tolerant – rate sensitive other UDP uses – DNS – SNMP reliable transfer over UDP: add reliability at application layer – application-specific error recovery! source port #dest port # 32 bits Application data (message) UDP segment format length checksum Length, in bytes of UDP segment, including header

9 Transport Layer 3-9 UDP checksum Sender: treat segment contents as sequence of 16-bit integers checksum: addition (1’s complement sum) of segment contents sender puts checksum value into UDP checksum field Receiver: compute checksum of received segment check if computed checksum equals checksum field value: – NO - error detected – YES - no error detected. But maybe errors nonetheless? More later …. Goal: detect “errors” (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted segment

10 Transport Layer 3-10 Internet Checksum Example Note: w hen adding numbers, a carryout from the most significant bit needs to be added to the result Example: add two 16-bit integers wraparound sum checksum

11 Transport Layer 3-11 Principles of Reliable data transfer important in app., transport, link layers top-10 list of important networking topics! characteristics of unreliable channel will determine complexity of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt)

12 Transport Layer 3-12 Principles of Reliable data transfer important in app., transport, link layers top-10 list of important networking topics! characteristics of unreliable channel will determine complexity of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt)

13 Transport Layer 3-13 Principles of Reliable data transfer important in app., transport, link layers top-10 list of important networking topics! characteristics of unreliable channel will determine complexity of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt)

14 Transport Layer 3-14 Reliable data transfer: getting started send side receive side rdt_send(): called from above, (e.g., by app.). Passed data to deliver to receiver upper layer udt_send(): called by rdt, to transfer packet over unreliable channel to receiver rdt_rcv(): called when packet arrives on rcv-side of channel deliver_data(): called by rdt to deliver data to upper

15 Transport Layer 3-15 Reliable data transfer: getting started We’ll: incrementally develop sender, receiver sides of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt) consider only unidirectional data transfer – but control info will flow on both directions! use finite state machines (FSM) to specify sender, receiver state 1 state 2 event causing state transition actions taken on state transition state: when in this “state” next state uniquely determined by next event event actions

16 Transport Layer 3-16 Pipelined protocols pipelining: sender allows multiple, “in-flight”, yet-to-be- acknowledged pkts – range of sequence numbers must be increased – buffering at sender and/or receiver two generic forms of pipelined protocols: go-Back-N, selective repeat

17 Transport Layer 3-17 Pipelining: increased utilization first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 senderreceiver RTT last bit transmitted, t = L / R first packet bit arrives last packet bit arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R last bit of 2 nd packet arrives, send ACK last bit of 3 rd packet arrives, send ACK Increase utilization by a factor of 3!

18 Transport Layer 3-18 Pipelined Protocols Go-back-N: big picture: sender can have up to N unacked packets in pipeline rcvr only sends cumulative acks – doesn’t ack packet if there’s a gap sender has timer for oldest unacked packet – if timer expires, retransmit all unack’ed packets Selective Repeat: big pic sender can have up to N unack’ed packets in pipeline rcvr sends individual ack for each packet sender maintains timer for each unacked packet – when timer expires, retransmit only unack’ed packet

19 Transport Layer 3-19 TCP segment structure source port # dest port # 32 bits application data (variable length) sequence number acknowledgement number Receive window Urg data pnter checksum F SR PAU head len not used Options (variable length) URG: urgent data (generally not used) ACK: ACK # valid PSH: push data now (generally not used) RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) # bytes rcvr willing to accept counting by bytes of data (not segments!) Internet checksum (as in UDP)

20 Transport Layer 3-20 TCP seq. #’s and ACKs Seq. #’s: – byte stream “number” of first byte in segment’s data ACKs: – seq # of next byte expected from other side – cumulative ACK Q: how receiver handles out- of-order segments – A: TCP spec doesn’t say, - up to implementor Host A Host B Seq=42, ACK=79, data = ‘C’ Seq=79, ACK=43, data = ‘C’ Seq=43, ACK=80 User types ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of echoed ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of ‘C’, echoes back ‘C’ time simple telnet scenario

21 Transport Layer 3-21 TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout Q: how to set TCP timeout value? longer than RTT – but RTT varies too short: premature timeout – unnecessary retransmissions too long: slow reaction to segment loss Q: how to estimate RTT? SampleRTT : measured time from segment transmission until ACK receipt – ignore retransmissions SampleRTT will vary, want estimated RTT “smoother” – average several recent measurements, not just current SampleRTT

22 Transport Layer 3-22 TCP Flow Control receive side of TCP connection has a receive buffer: speed-matching service: matching the send rate to the receiving app’s drain rate  app process may be slow at reading from buffer sender won’t overflow receiver’s buffer by transmitting too much, too fast flow control

23 Transport Layer 3-23 TCP Flow control: how it works (suppose TCP receiver discards out-of-order segments) spare room in buffer = RcvWindow = RcvBuffer-[LastByteRcvd - LastByteRead] rcvr advertises spare room by including value of RcvWindow in segments sender limits unACKed data to RcvWindow – guarantees receive buffer doesn’t overflow

24 Transport Layer 3-24 TCP Connection Management Recall: TCP sender, receiver establish “connection” before exchanging data segments initialize TCP variables: – seq. #s – buffers, flow control info (e.g. RcvWindow ) client: connection initiator Socket clientSocket = new Socket("hostname","port number"); server: contacted by client Socket connectionSocket = welcomeSocket.accept(); Three way handshake: Step 1: client host sends TCP SYN segment to server – specifies initial seq # – no data Step 2: server host receives SYN, replies with SYNACK segment – server allocates buffers – specifies server initial seq. # Step 3: client receives SYNACK, replies with ACK segment, which may contain data

25 Transport Layer 3-25 TCP Connection Management (cont.) Closing a connection: client closes socket: clientSocket.close(); Step 1: client end system sends TCP FIN control segment to server Step 2: server receives FIN, replies with ACK. Closes connection, sends FIN. client FIN server ACK FIN close closed timed wait

26 Transport Layer 3-26 TCP Connection Management (cont.) Step 3: client receives FIN, replies with ACK. – Enters “timed wait” - will respond with ACK to received FINs Step 4: server, receives ACK. Connection closed. Note: with small modification, can handle simultaneous FINs. client FIN server ACK FIN closing closed timed wait closed

27 Transport Layer 3-27 TCP Connection Management (cont) TCP client lifecycle TCP server lifecycle

28 Transport Layer 3-28 Principles of Congestion Control Congestion: informally: “too many sources sending too much data too fast for network to handle” different from flow control! manifestations: – lost packets (buffer overflow at routers) – long delays (queueing in router buffers) a top-10 problem!

29 Transport Layer 3-29 Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 1 two senders, two receivers one router, infinite buffers no retransmission large delays when congested maximum achievable throughput unlimited shared output link buffers Host A in : original data Host B out

30 Transport Layer 3-30 Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 2 one router, finite buffers sender retransmission of timed-out packet – application-layer input = application-layer output:  in = out – transport-layer input includes retransmissions :  in in finite shared output link buffers Host A in : original data Host B out ' in : original data, plus retransmitted data ‘

31 Transport Layer 3-31 Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 3 four senders multihop paths timeout/retransmit in Q: what happens as and increase ? in finite shared output link buffers Host A in : original data Host B out ' in : original data, plus retransmitted data

32 Transport Layer 3-32 Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 3 another “cost” of congestion:  when packet dropped, any “upstream transmission capacity used for that packet was wasted! HostAHostA HostBHostB o u t

33 Transport Layer 3-33 Approaches towards congestion control end-end congestion control: no explicit feedback from network congestion inferred from end- system observed loss, delay approach taken by TCP network-assisted congestion control: routers provide feedback to end systems – single bit indicating congestion (SNA, DECbit, TCP/IP ECN, ATM) – explicit rate sender should send at Two broad approaches towards congestion control:


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