2Based on An argument for increasing TCP’s initial congestion window Nandita Dukkipati, Tiziana Refice, Yuchung Cheng, Jerry Chu, Tom Herbert, Amit Agarwal, Arvind Jain and Natalia Sutin. Google Inc.
3Content Terminology TCP explanation and origin OSI model TCP header formats and fieldsTCP Flow Control
4Terminology I TCP: Transmission Control Protocol IP : Internet ProtocolACK : acknowledgementURG : Urgent Pointer field significancePSH : Push or send data to applicationSYN : Synchronize sequence numbersRST : Reset (abort) the connectionFIN : No more data
5Terminology IIcwnd : Congestion Window(an interval that sender choose a number of sending bytes from that)awnd : advertised window (how many more bytes the receiver is willing to accept beyond the last acknowledged byte)ss_thresh : defined constant as a critical valueRTT : Round Trip TimeBDP : Bandwidth Delay ProductTime Out : duration from sending a packet that will be lost and retransmission of that until receiving acknowledgement.
6What is TCP?TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data (packets) and guarantees delivery of them in the same order which they were sent. In other words, TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, and file transfer rely on. Packet loss is one of the major concerns here.
7What is TCP?On the other hand, other applications, which do not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability. Applications like Skype, ooVoo and almost all of the video/audio stream based applications using UDP protocol. Packet loss is not important here.Historiam begoo
11TCP header fieldsSource and destination port : identifies the sending and receiving ports. (16 bits)Sequence Number : random number from (2^32 _ 1)ACK Number : A dedicated ACK or piggybacked ACK contains the sequence number of the next data segment the receiver expects. (= sequence number)Heather LengthReserved : reserved for future use. Must be zero
12TCP header fields Flags : URG, ACK , PSH, RST, SYN and FIN. (6 bits) Window : flow control credit allocation, value of advertised window. (16 bits)Checksum : this field is used for error-checking of the header and data. (16 bits)Urgent Pointer : if the URG flag is set, then this 16-bit field is an offset from the sequence number indicating the last urgent data byte . Indicates data that is to be delivered as quickly as possible. This pointer specifies the position where urgent data ends.Options : Variables such that time stamping to augment seq.num in high speed connections
13TCP Connection Establishment sender receiver1. SYN, sequence number =x2. SYN+ACK seq.num = yAcknowledgement x+13. ACK, acknowledgement y+1(Client)(server)12Three-way Hand shake Protocol3X random numbere 32 bit ke az oon shooroo mishe va mirie too dore ta behesh berese baz 2. badeesh active ke sendere
14TCP Connection Termination client server 1. FIN, seqNum = x 2. acknowledgement = x+1 3. FIN, seqNum = y 4. acknowledgement = y+11234
17Flow control is needed to: Prevent sender from “swamping” receiver with data e.g. a fast server sending to a slow client.
18Flow control is needed to: Prevent sender from “swamping” receiver with data e.g. a fast server sending to a slow client.Provide congestion control inside the network, e.g. in gateways or routers.
19Flow control is needed to: Prevent sender from “swamping” receiver with data e.g. a fast server sending to a slow client.Provide congestion control inside the network, e.g. in gateways or routers.* In either case, a node can be forced to discard packets due to lack of buffer space.
25Congestion control mechanism 1. Slow start phase initial_cwnd = 12. Congestion avoidance phase3. Congestion detection and recoverya) Standard Recovery ( recovery by timeout)b) Fast retransmission and fast recoveryMoshkele fast ine ke faghat yekio recover mikone va age too ye rtt bish az 1 loss dashte bashim ba ga raftim va timeout mishe
26Begoo ke faghat 3 dafe poshte ham fast mikone bad dige be ga mire
27Increasing initial cwnd TCP initial_cwnd has remained unchanged since 2002.in 2009 one paper indicated that average connection bandwidth is 1.7 Mbps with more than 50% of clients have bandwidth above 2 Mbps, while the usage of narrowband (<256 Kbps) has shrunk to about 5% of clients.Applications like IE8, Firefox 3 devised their own mechanism.Begoo ina chand ta tcp baham baz mikardan per domain
28Advantages: Reduce latency latency of a transfer completing in slow start without losses is:
29Advantages: Reduce latency latency of a transfer completing in slow start without losses is:
30Advantages: Keep up with growth in Web page sizes The Internet average Web page size is 384 KB  including HTTP headers and composed resources . Now web browsers using multiple TCP connection using slow start.e.g. IE8 can open 180 connections, Firefox open more than 24 connectionsTherefore, increasing initial_cnwd mitigate that need.Pas page normal chand ta RTT mikhad
31Advantages:Allow short transfers to compete fairly with bulk data traffic.Internet measurements indicate that most of the network traffic are bulk data transfers ( such as video), while majority of connections are short-lived and transfer small amount of data.
32Therefore, I)Minimize average Web page download time, II)Minimize impact on tail latency due to increased packet loss,III)Maintain fairness with competing flows,
34What is the best initial congestion window number? Now…What is the best initial congestion window number?
35What is the best initial congestion window number? Now…What is the best initial congestion window number?Based on experiments and charts presented in this paper, 10 segments (≈15KB)* Ethernet and maximum size of segment is 1430 bytes.
36Negative impact The effect on retransmission rate TCP’s retransmission rate represents an upper bound for the percentage of packets lost due to congestion.Begoo age ziad yeho bedim va packet loss etefagh biofte be ga mirim
37Ratio of retransmitted bytes to that of unique bytes transmitted, expressed as a percentage. Initial_cwnd=10Avg DCAllWeb searchMapsPhotosExp2.291.734.172.64Base1.981.553.272.25Diff0.310.180.900.39Slow DCBadesham begoo ke multiple tcp connection ham yeki digashe ke nemigam ta koonetoon besoozeAllWeb searchMapsPhotosExp4.213.505.796.10Base3.542.983.944.97Diff0.670.521.851.12
38ConclusionIncreasing initial congestion window is a small change with a significant positive impact on Web transfer latency.Mitigate the need for multiple TCP connections to increase download speedIETF trying to standardize the TCP’s initial congestion window to at least 10 segmentsFurther work should focus on eliminating the initial congestion window as a manifest constant to scale even large network speeds and Web page sizesInternet engineering task force
39Thank you for your time and I appreciate your consideration
40ReferencesAn Argument for Incresing TCP’s Initial Congestion Window google IncAkamai. The state of the internet. 3rd quarter 2009S.Ramachandran and A. jain : size and number of resources