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Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 Introduction – Ethernet Bus Configurations – Ethernet.

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Presentation on theme: "Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 Introduction – Ethernet Bus Configurations – Ethernet."— Presentation transcript:

1 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 Introduction – Ethernet Bus Configurations – Ethernet Star Configurations – Switched Ethernet – Fast Ethernet – Gigabit Ethernet – Broadcast Domains – Virtual LANs – Data Flow Across Multiple Networks LAN Protocols - Overview Lessons in Unit 1: Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

2 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  At the end of Lesson 1, you should be able to: –Draw 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet network configurations –Understand the limitations of coaxial-based Ethernet solutions Coax-based Ethernet networks are still in use; however, they are seldom incorporated in new installations. Key Point This lesson explains the typical configuration of a 10Base2 or 10Base5 Ethernet network, operating at 10 Mbps. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

3 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  The most straightforward Ethernet configuration consists of several Ethernet workstations connected onto a single Ethernet bus segment.  This is shown on the 10Base2 Ethernet Configuration Diagram, consisting of four network nodes and a single server. Thinnet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

4 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations Thinnet Configuration 10Base2 Ethernet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

5 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  The network interface card (NIC) normally contains the transceiver, and the Thinnet cable is attached to the NIC by means of a T- connector as shown on the 10Base2 Adapter and Cable Diagram. Thinnet Configuration 10Base2 Adapter and Cable Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

6 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  A transceiver is: – a device that takes the digital signal from the workstation and converts it to a format suitable for the physical cabling.  Thinnet connectivity is simple and provides a low-cost alternative for Ethernet networks. Thinnet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

7 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  The following specifications apply to 10Base2 Ethernet networks: – RG-58A/U coaxial cabling is normally used. – The 5/4/3 rule applies. – A maximum of 30 nodes can be attached to each segment. – Minimum distance between drops is 1.64 feet. Thinnet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

8 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  Another example of an Ethernet network is shown on the 10Base5 Ethernet Configuration Diagram.  10Base5 cabling is also called Thicknet or Yellow Wire, because the outer cover is often yellow. Thicknet Configuration 10Base5 Ethernet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

9 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations  The following specifications apply when reviewing a 10Base5 coaxial Ethernet network configuration: – Transceivers should be placed at 8.5-foot intervals or multiples thereof. – Each segment must be no longer than 500 meters (1,640 feet). – The 5/4/3 rule applies. – There can be a maximum of 100 nodes per segment. – RG-8 coaxial cable is normally used. Thicknet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

10 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations 1) Draw a Thinnet network diagram that consists of three segments. The first and last segments contain 10 nodes. The middle segment does not contain any nodes and is only used for network extension. Activity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

11 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Bus Configurations 1) Using a Web search engine, find information that relates to the 5/4/3 rule and coaxial Ethernet. List your findings. Extended Activity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

12 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  At the end of Lesson 2, you should be able to: –Draw a 10BaseT Ethernet network using one or more hubs –Understand the function of an uplink port on a hub –Understand the concept of a collision domain The most common Ethernet topology is a star. Key Point Newer Ethernet networks use star configurations as the primary method of connectivity. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

13 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  An example of an Ethernet star network is shown on the 10BaseT Ethernet Configuration Diagram.  This star configuration, uses twisted pair cabling. Star Configuration Using Hub Technology 10BaseT Ethernet Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

14 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  10BaseT star-wired networks provide the following advantages over 10Base2 and 10Base5: – Nodes are easily added to, and removed from, a network. – Network problems are easier to troubleshoot because suspect nodes can easily be disconnected from the hub. Star Configuration Using Hub Technology Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

15 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  A collision domain is the portion of a network where all nodes receive every frame transmitted.  Larger networks may contain many collision domains. Star Configuration Using Hub Technology Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

16 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  The Ethernet Collision Domain Diagram illustrates this principle. Star Configuration Using Hub Technology Ethernet Collision Domain Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

17 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  As a network grows and more nodes are needed, hubs must be added providing more physical ports for additional device connectivity.  The Ethernet Hub-to-Hub Diagram illustrates this principle. Hub-to-Hub Connectivity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

18 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations Hub-to-Hub Connectivity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz Ethernet Hub-to-Hub Diagram

19 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  As networks grow, more and more hubs may be added to increase the number of nodes attached to a network.  At some point in time, servers must be added to provide options not available in a strictly peer-to-peer network. Hub-to-Hub Connectivity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

20 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations  This is shown on the Ethernet Client/Server Configuration Diagram. Hub-to-Hub Connectivity Ethernet Client/Server Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

21 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations 1) Using 12-port hubs, draw an Ethernet network consisting of 50 computers. 2) How many collision domains are there in this network? 3) If a frame is sent between two clients attached to the same hub, how many total devices in this network will detect this frame? 4) What is the purpose of the central hub? Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

22 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Ethernet Star Configurations 1) Using the Web, research Ethernet hubs and list three vendor products. Summarize your findings and include the cost per port and functionality of each product. Extended Activity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

23 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  At the end of Lesson 3, you should be able to: –Describe the function of a switch –Explain the difference between a network using hubs versus switches –Describe the performance advantages of using a switch over a hub Ethernet switches use frame addresses to make switching decisions. Key Point Ethernet switches provide performance improvements over hub-based solutions. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

24 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  An Ethernet switch provides connectivity between any two attached Ethernet devices (or segments) on a frame-by-frame basis.  The Media Access Control (MAC)-layer address determines the hub or switch port to which the frame will travel.  In Ethernet switching, a dedicated virtual connection is established between each pair of sending and receiving ports. Switched Configurations Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

25 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  The two most common types of Ethernet switches are: – store-and-forward switches – fast-forward switches  Store-and-forward switches check each frame for accuracy and then direct the frame to the destination.  Fast-forward switches do not error-check the frame; they merely direct the frame to the appropriate destination. Switched Configurations Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

26 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  The Standard Hub vs. Switching Hub Diagram compares Ethernet LANs implemented by a standard hub versus a switching hub. Switched Configurations Standard Hub vs. Switching Hub Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

27 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  The Switched Workgroups Diagram illustrates how performance can be improved using a switch versus adding another hub. Switched Ethernet Backbone Switched Workgroups Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

28 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  Many switches offer ports with different speeds.  The workgroups are in separate collision domains, traffic destined for a computer in another workgroup may affect the performance of the computers in that workgroup. Switched Ethernet Backbone Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

29 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet  This is demonstrated on the Workgroup-to- Workgroup Traffic Diagram. Switched Ethernet Backbone Workgroup-to-Workgroup Traffic Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

30 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet 1) Discuss trends in LAN technologies in class. 2) Review current implementation costs of an Ethernet LAN in class. 3) Discuss performance characteristics of Ethernet bandwidths and configurations in class. 4) Discuss the difference between a switched backbone and a backbone that contains a hub in class. Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

31 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Switched Ethernet 1) Perform the hands-on exercises to demonstrate the difference between hubs and switches. 2) Observe the instructor’s demonstration of LAN features/functions (in lab or classroom). Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

32 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  At the end of Lesson 4, you should be able to: –Draw 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet network configurations –Understand the limitations of coaxial-based Ethernet solutions Fast Ethernet is identical 10 Mbps Ethernet, only faster. Key Point Fast Ethernet works the same way as 10 Mbps Ethernet, only 10 times faster (10 times the bit rate). Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

33 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  In some cases, switched 10 Mbps Ethernet networks may not provide enough bandwidth for an organization.  The Network Applications Table summarizes the applications and their impact on the network. The Need for Speed Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

34 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet The Need for Speed Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

35 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  Many of these applications require the transmission of large files over the network.  Many companies are now using Internet technologies to build private intranets.  Data warehousing has become popular as a way of making enterprise data available to decision makers for reporting and analysis without sacrificing the performance, security, or integrity of production systems. The Need for Speed Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

36 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  Network backup of servers and storage systems is common in many industries that require enterprise information to be archived. The Need for Speed Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

37 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  100BaseT twisted pair cabling can extend to distances of 100 meters.  An example of a 100BaseT network is shown on the 100BaseT Network Diagram.  This configuration is identical to a star configuration used in 10 Mbps Ethernet LANs. Fast Ethernet 100BaseT Network Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

38 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  It is possible to combine Ethernet LANs using both 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps technology.  This is illustrated on the 10/100BaseT Network Configuration Diagram. Fast Ethernet 10/100BaseT Network Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

39 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet  100BaseTX is the specification that describes how to run 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet over Category 5 UTP.  Key points regarding Fast Ethernet are: – The 100BaseT standard requires replacement of existing equipment. – The maximum UTP cable length is 100 meters. – Category 5 cabling must be used. – The 100BaseT standard can extend distance capabilities by using fiber optic cable technology. – The maximum number of repeater hops is two. Fast Ethernet Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

40 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet A typical quote from a LAN implementation vendor is shown below. This estimate contains the cost of installing a 16-station Fast Ethernet network using Category 5 twisted pair cabling and a 100 BaseT hub. All intelligent devices are Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) capable. Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

41 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet 1) Draw a diagram of this network and discuss in class. 2) Describe why higher speeds are required. Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

42 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Fast Ethernet 1) Research Ethernet at higher speeds than 100 Mbps, such as Gigabit Ethernet. 2) What products are currently available for these newer technologies? Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

43 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  At the end of Lesson 5, you should be able to: –Identify the common features shared by both Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, as well as features that differ between the two standards –Describe some of the problems Gigabit Ethernet may solve, as well as problems it may create –Discuss how much of a network’s existing Ethernet technology might be preserved in a migration to Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet preserves the existing Ethernet frame format and CSMA/CD media access. Key Point This lesson explains the typical configuration of a 10Base2 or 10Base5 Ethernet network, operating at 10 Mbps. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

44 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The goal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.3z Task Force, which developed the Gigabit Ethernet standard, was to deliver 10 times the performance of Fast Ethernet at very affordable prices. The Gigabit Ethernet Standard Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

45 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  As the Ethernet Compatibility Table shows, Gigabit Ethernet uses existing Ethernet technologies, taking advantage of Ethernet’s fiercely competitive pricing. The Gigabit Ethernet Standard Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

46 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The key objective of the 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet Task Force was to develop a Gigabit Ethernet standard that accomplished the following: – Allowed half- and full-duplex operation at speeds of 1,000 Mbps – Used the Ethernet frame formats – Used the carrier sense multiple access/collision detect (CSMA/CD) access method with support for one repeater per collision domain – Addressed backward compatibility with 10BaseT and 100BaseT technologies The Gigabit Ethernet Standard Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

47 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  As illustrated on the Gigabit Ethernet Layers Diagram, the Physical (PHY) Layer is a crucial part of the Gigabit Ethernet specification. Gigabit Ethernet Cabling and Distance Specifications Gigabit Ethernet Layers Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

48 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Physical Layer provides the interface between the MAC layer and the transceivers in Gigabit Ethernet hardware.  The Physical Layer performs – encoding – decoding – carrier sense – link monitor functions Gigabit Ethernet Cabling and Distance Specifications Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

49 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Gigabit Ethernet standard includes three specifications for fiber cabling: – 1000BaseSX (“S” for short wavelength) defines optical transceivers or Physical Layer devices for laser fiber cabling. – 1000BaseLX (“L” for long wavelength) defines optical transceivers or Physical Layer devices for laser fiber cabling. – 1000BaseLH (“LH” for long haul) is a multivendor specification that defines optical transceivers that support distances greater than the 1000BaseLX specification. Fiber Cabling Specifications Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

50 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Gigabit Ethernet Distances for Fiber Optic Media Table shows the distance specifications for 1000BaseSX and 1000BaseLX fiber optic media. Fiber Cabling Specifications Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

51 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Gigabit Ethernet Distances for 1000BaseLH Fiber Optic Media Table lists specific wavelength distances recently qualified by 3Com. Fiber Cabling Specifications Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

52 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Gigabit Ethernet also includes two copper cabling specifications: – 1000BaseCX (“C” for copper) defines transceivers or Physical Layer devices for shielded copper cabling. – 1000BaseTX (“T” for twisted pair) is the developing specification for Gigabit Ethernet over four-pair Category 5 UTP copper cabling for distances up to 100 m. Copper Cabling Specifications Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

53 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  To assess a new technology like Gigabit Ethernet, you must compare it to other technologies and evaluate its impact on existing network topology and equipment. Implementing Gigabit Ethernet in a Network Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

54 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Link or port aggregation, also called trunking.  Link aggregation is the ability to support multiple, point-to-point, parallel active links between switches, or between a switch and server.  The advantages of link aggregation are: – higher bandwidth – redundant links – load sharing Gigabit Ethernet and Link Aggregation Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

55 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Gigabit Ethernet relieves the bottleneck at the server.  Gigabit Ethernet NICs currently under design will overcome some of the server system bottlenecks and be optimized for the upcoming evolution in server architecture. Optimizing Servers to Handle Gigabit Ethernet Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

56 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Critical server system improvements include the following: – PCI Bus Bandwidth – Network Operating System – CPU Utilization at Gigabit Speeds – Memory Subsystems – Storage Subsystems Optimizing Servers to Handle Gigabit Ethernet Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

57 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus is the predominant bus in x86 platforms.  The PCI Bus Bandwidth Matrix shows that PCI buses support gigabit rates today. PCI Bus Bandwidth Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

58 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The bottleneck has moved from the network to inside the host itself; the challenge is now to increase the performance of the network operating system (NOS) and host.  The performance of the server connection depends heavily on the NOS and underlying protocols. Network Operating System Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

59 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  At gigabit speeds, routine networking tasks such as TCP/IP checksum calculations can easily tie up the processor, resulting in 100 percent CPU utilization that leaves no processing power for other applications. CPU Utilization at Gigabit Speeds Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

60 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Memory subsystem performance also affects overall server performance and network connection throughput. Memory Subsystems Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

61 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Storage is typically the slowest component of the server.  It usually uses rotating media (disk) technology with mechanical limitations. Storage Subsystems Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

62 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  Gigabit Ethernet is best suited for unclogging network bottlenecks that occur in three main areas: – Switch-to-switch connections – Connections to high-speed servers – Backbone connections Gigabit Ethernet Migration Scenario Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

63 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The following scenario details a network migration to Gigabit Ethernet.  As shown on the Starting Point Diagram, the initial building backbone is 10-Mbps Ethernet. Initial Configurations Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

64 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet Initial Configurations Starting Point Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

65 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  In this scenario: –Power users are experiencing bottlenecks from their 10-Mbps links. –Users on the shared segments are experiencing slow response times. –All new desktops are equipped with 10/100-PCI NICs. Initial Configurations Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

66 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Phase 1 Diagram shows how the first upgrade phase is implemented in three areas: –Upgrading the network backbone to 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet –Upgrading the power workgroup to 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet connections between the end stations and switch –Implementing 10-Mbps switching in other workgroups that need dedicated bandwidth Phase 1 Upgrade Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

67 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet Phase 1 Upgrade Phase 1 Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

68 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet  The Phase 2 Diagram shows how the riser downlinks are upgraded to Gigabit Ethernet to increase backbone bandwidth even further. Phase 2 Upgrade Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

69 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet Phase 2 Upgrade Phase 2 Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

70 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet 1) How does Gigabit Ethernet compare with Fast Ethernet in terms of similar technology? 2) List the characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet fiber cabling specifications. 3) What are the characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet copper cabling specifications? 4) Contrast link aggregation with Gigabit Ethernet in terms of solutions to provide additional bandwidth. Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

71 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet 5) Discuss the problems of delivering Gigabit Ethernet to servers and workstations with PCI buses. 6) What would logically be the first area in an enterprise network that would benefit from migration to Gigabit Ethernet? 7) Would most users benefit from Gigabit Ethernet to the desktop or should the existing Ethernet technology be preserved? Explain. Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

72 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Gigabit Ethernet 1) Research information on the latest 10-Gbps Ethernet standards and compare these to the Fibre Channel standard. 2) Go to Web site and note the current developments in Gigabit Ethernet. Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

73 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains  At the end of Lesson 6, you should be able to: –Understand the concept of broadcast domains –Understand the difference between a broadcast network and broadcast frame Broadcast traffic should be minimized in a LAN Key Point This lesson looks at the concept of broadcast domains in a LAN. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

74 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains  Switches isolate traffic between individual workgroups by forming separate collision domains.  A broadcast network or collision domain is a network that consists of nodes attached to the same physical media or hub that receive every transmitted frame on the network.  Broadcast traffic consists of broadcast frames, that have a special destination MAC address of all 1s. Traffic Isolation Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

75 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains  When a switch sees a frame with a specific NIC address, it makes a switching decision.  When a switch sees a frame with a broadcast address, it has no choice but to send the frame out every port (except in VLAN applications discussed in the next lesson).  This is referred to as a broadcast domain and is illustrated on the Ethernet Broadcast Domain Diagram. Traffic Isolation Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

76 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains Traffic Isolation Ethernet Broadcast Domain Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

77 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains  The Ethernet Switch and Router Diagram illustrates one possible configuration for connecting a switched network to another network. Switched Ethernet Backbone and Router Connectivity Ethernet Switch and Router Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

78 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains 1)Determine the number of collision domains and broadcast domains in each of the following three configurations: aFor the first configuration, use the 10BaseT Ethernet Configuration Diagram from Lesson 4. bFor the second configuration, use the Ethernet Hub-to-Hub Diagram from Lesson 2. cFor the next configuration, use the Switched Workgroups Diagram from Lesson 3. 2) Draw a diagram that contains three collision domains and one broadcast domain. Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

79 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Broadcast Domains 1) Perform the lab exercise entitled “Hubs and Switches in Networks.” Extended Activity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

80 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  At the end of Lesson 7, you should be able to: –Describe the concept of a VLAN –Understand the concept of broadcast containment –Understand the relationship between VLANs and broadcast traffic VLANs provide broadcast containment in a LAN. Key Point Using switches and software, without moving users to new desks, VLANs can create the appearance of a private LAN for every virtual workgroup. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

81 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  A VLAN consists of many nodes connected by a single bridging domain.  A bridging domain is a portion of a network that consists of end nodes and Layer 2 devices such as bridges and switches. Switched VLANs Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

82 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  An example of a VLAN is shown on the VLAN Diagram. Switched VLANs VLAN Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

83 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  The Routed VLAN Configuration Diagram demonstrates the configuration normally used to segment switched networks into VLANs, while maintaining widespread communication using a routed backbone. Routed VLANs Routed VLAN Configuration Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

84 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  One of the primary purposes for implementing virtual LANs is broadcast containment.  Broadcast containment is the principle of limiting the amount of broadcast traffic on a network. Routed VLANs Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

85 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  Routers contain broadcast traffic because they analyze packet and frame addresses.  Routers pass traffic destined for remote Layer Three addresses networks.  A disadvantage to router processing is the time it takes to process both frames and packets. Routed VLANs Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

86 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs  With the introduction of switching, organizations were able to divide the network into smaller, Layer 2-defined segments, enabling increased bandwidth per segment.  VLANs represent an alternative solution to routers for broadcast containment, because VLANs allow switches to also contain broadcast traffic. Routed VLANs Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

87 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs 1) VLANs are typically implemented using which type of device? aBridge bGateway cRepeater dSwitch Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

88 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs 2) Which of the following best describes the functionality of a VLAN? aGrouping nodes logically that may be physically separated bGrouping nodes physically in one single routing domain cReplacing passive hubs for performance purposes dProviding performance improvements over traditional routed networks Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

89 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs 3) The primary reason to build a VLAN is to: aSeparate servers from workstations bTo minimize broadcast traffic cIncrease reach ability of broadcast traffic dProvide for increased segment-switching capabilities 4) VLANs can be created using a variety of switch vendor products in the same network. True / False 5) VLANs can be roughly equated to a broadcast domain. True / False Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

90 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Virtual LANs 1) Configure a switch to act as a VLAN in a network. Extended Activity Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

91 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  At the end of Lesson 8, you should be able to: –Explain how packets and LAN frames work together –Describe how information flows through hubs, switches, and routers Networking protocols and devices determine how data flows. Key Point This lesson ties many concepts together as we discuss moving data across two or more connected LANs or WANs. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

92 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  This section details several key points including: –Protocol layering –Processes and protocols –Format of information transfer –Client/server communication –Hub, switch, and router operation –Relationship of frames, packets, and process addresses Flow Analysis Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

93 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  The Network Information Flow Diagram is used to illustrate some of these key points. Flow Analysis Network Information Flow Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

94 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  Client 1 is requesting a World Wide Web (Web) page from a remote Web site.  Point 1 demonstrates a common protocol stack found in computers that access information across a network. 1. Client Request Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

95 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  Point 2 on the diagram illustrates the frame format that is found anywhere between Client 1 and one of the routers in the network.  Because this request is going to a remote location, the frame destination address is the address of the router NIC. 2. Traversing the LAN Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

96 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  The switch forwards the frame to the correct port based on the destination address of the Ethernet frame, which is addressed to the NIC in the router.  When the router receives the frame, it recognizes its own NIC address. The router then passes the IP packet up to its IP process. 3. Crossing the Wide Area Link Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

97 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  The packet arrives at the remote router, which sends the packet on its way to its final destination.  It does this by first decapsulating the packet from the frame relay frame, then encapsulating the packet in a new Ethernet frame addressed to Web Server Delivery to Destination Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

98 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks  Web Server 1’s protocol stack (Point 5) is identical to Client 1, except the Web server has a server application loaded instead of a Web browser.  By the end of this complex process, the client’s request has been successfully delivered to the server. 4. Delivery to Destination Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

99 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks Answer the following questions using the Network Information Flow Diagram presented in this lesson. 1) How many collision domains are in the network? 2) How many broadcast domains are in the network? 3) What layer(s) of software process information at the first router? 4) How does a router know whether to forward information to another network? 5) What is the source and destination address of the first frame in this network? Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

100 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks The trace information below shows details of a client request to a server. Packet 5 captured at 04/15/ :37:58 PM; Packet size is 54(0x36)bytes Relative time: 000:00: Delta time: Ethernet Version II Address: 00-A0-24-BF-6F-B3 ---> B Ethernet II Protocol Type: IP Internet Protocol Version(MSB 4 bits): 4 Header length(LSB 4 bits): 5 (32-bit word) Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

101 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks Service type: 0x = 0 - Routine = Normal delay = Normal throughput = Normal reliability Total length: 40 (Octets) Fragment ID: 4111 Flags summary: 0x = Reserved = Do not fragment = Last fragment Fragment offset(LSB 13 bits): 0 (0x00) Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

102 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks Time to live: 32 seconds/hops IP protocol type: TCP (0x06) Checksum: 0x03A8 IP address > No option Transmission Control Protocol Port > World Wide Web HTTP Sequence Number: Acknowledgement Number: Header Length(MSB 4 bits): 5 (32-bit word) Reserved(LSB 4 bits): 0 Code: 0x10 Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

103 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks RES: = Reserved URG: = Urgent Pointer is Invalid ACK: = Acknowledgement Field is Valid PSH: = No push Requested RST: = No reset Connection SYN: = No synchronize Sequence Number FIN: = More Data From Sender Window: 8760 Checksum: 0xF8C9 Urgent Pointer: 0x0000 Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

104 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks Packet: : b a0 24 bf 6f b |.`.;....$.o³..E. 0010: f a8 cd a9 55 c9 cd a9 0020: 55 fd c4 79 5b ad | Uý.w.P.u.y[V(.P. 0030: f8 c | “8.... Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

105 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Data Flows Across Multiple Networks 1) Where does the frame begin and end in the hexadecimal detail? 2) Where does the packet begin and end in the hexadecimal detail? 3) Where does the message begin and end in the hexadecimal detail? 4) What is the purpose of this client request? Extended Activities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

106 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 1) The distance that information can be sent over twisted pair in a typical LAN environment is: a100 meters b1,000 meters c10 kilometers d200 meters Unit 1 Summary Quiz Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

107 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 2) Which connector type is associated with Thinnet coaxial cable? aRJ-45 bRG-58 cBNC dRS-232 Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

108 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 3) An Ethernet LAN that uses UTP cabling as the physical media is referred to as a: aStar bStar/Ring cBus dDRing Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

109 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 4) A collision domain is the part of the network where: aEthernet NICs exist bFrames are received by all nodes on the physical segment cSwitches attach PCs dA collision is most likely to exist Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

110 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 5) A special port on a hub called a crossover or uplink port is provided for: aConnectivity to a WAN bConnectivity to another hub or switch cConnectivity to a server dPeer-to-peer network traffic isolation Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

111 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 6) The primary difference between a hub and switch is: aA hub is a Physical Layer device; a switch is a Network Layer device. bA hub has fewer physical ports than a switch. cA switch is less efficient than a hub. dA switch can isolate traffic. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

112 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 7) One advantage to using a switch over a hub is: aCost bTraffic isolation capabilities cConfiguration capabilities dNetwork management capabilities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

113 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 8) Fast Ethernet is similar to standard Ethernet in which of the following ways: aThe same type of frame format is used. bThe same type of cabling can be used. cStar configurations are used in both types. dAll of the above Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

114 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 9) The network topology that uses a single wire or cable to connect all devices is referred to as: aBus topology bRing topology cLoop topology dMesh topology Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

115 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 10) When is UTP cable preferred over STP? aWhen there is little electrical interference bWhen cost is no object cWhen going long distances dWhen a fire hazard exists Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

116 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 11) Which of the following are considered advantages of star topology? aRedundancy bEase of management cMinimum cable requirements dHigh immunity to noise Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

117 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 12) Ethernet operates at all of the following speeds except: a600 Kbps b100 Mbps c1 Gbps d1,000 Mbps Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

118 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 13) Which of the following best describes the function of a Data Link Layer address? aTransmits a frame to the next NIC bTransmits a packet to the correct port cTransmits a frame to the final destination dTransmits a frame to the correct socket Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

119 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 14) The primary reason to build a VLAN is to: aSeparate servers from workstations bGroup segments to form logical traffic patterns cIncrease reachability of broadcast traffic dProvide for increased segment-switching capabilities Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

120 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 15) A broadcast domain is the part of a network where: aAll frames are received regardless of destination address. bAll frames are received when a broadcast frame is transmitted. cHubs are used to connect clients. dSwitches are used to connect clients. Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

121 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 16) The Ethernet standard is referred to as: aIEEE bIEEE cIEEE dIEEE 800.X Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

122 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 17) What is the primary purpose of a Data Link Layer protocol? aTransmit bits across a physical link bTransmit frames across a physical link cTransmit packets across a network dTransmit messages from process to process Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

123 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 18) How far in a network will a frame (Data Link Layer) address go? aTo the final destination, across routers bTo the final destination, across gateways cTo the next NIC dNone of the above Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

124 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 19) Why is a hub used in a LAN? aTo concentrate and repeat digital signals bTo detect fiber optic loss of light cTo regenerate a token in a Token Ring network dTo isolate traffic between Ethernet and Token Ring networks Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz

125 Convergence of Technologies ©2000 WestNet, Inc. Unit 1 Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8 LAN Protocols - Summary Quiz 20) 10BaseT cabling is also referred to as: aThinnet bThicknet cSTP dUTP Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Summary Quiz


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