Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transport Layer PART V.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transport Layer PART V."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transport Layer PART V

2 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Position of transport layer

3 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transport layer duties

4 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Chapters Chapter 22 Process-to-Process Delivery Chapter 23 Congestion Control and QoS

5 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Chapter 22 Process-to-Process Delivery: UDP and TCP

6 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Process-to-Process Delivery Client-Server Paradigm Addressing Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Connectionless/Connection-Oriented Reliable/Unreliable

7 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery. Note:

8 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.1 Types of data deliveries

9 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.2 Port numbers

10 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.3 IP addresses versus port numbers

11 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.4 IANA ranges

12 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.5 Socket address

13 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.6 Multiplexing and demultiplexing

14 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.7 Connection establishment

15 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.8 Connection termination

16 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 22.9 Error control

17 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., UDP Port Numbers User Datagram Applications

18 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 UDP is a connectionless, unreliable protocol that has no flow and error control. It uses port numbers to multiplex data from the application layer. Note:

19 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 22.1 Well-known ports used by UDP PortProtocolDescription 7EchoEchoes a received datagram back to the sender 9DiscardDiscards any datagram that is received 11UsersActive users 13DaytimeReturns the date and the time 17QuoteReturns a quote of the day 19ChargenReturns a string of characters 53NameserverDomain Name Service 67BootpsServer port to download bootstrap information 68BootpcClient port to download bootstrap information 69TFTPTrivial File Transfer Protocol 111RPCRemote Procedure Call 123NTPNetwork Time Protocol 161SNMPSimple Network Management Protocol 162SNMPSimple Network Management Protocol (trap)

20 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure User datagram format

21 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 The calculation of checksum and its inclusion in the user datagram are optional. Note:

22 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 UDP is a convenient transport-layer protocol for applications that provide flow and error control. It is also used by multimedia applications. Note:

23 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., TCP Port Numbers Services Sequence Numbers Segments Connection Transition Diagram Flow and Error Control Silly Window Syndrome

24 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 22.2 Well-known ports used by TCP PortProtocolDescription 7 EchoEchoes a received datagram back to the sender 9DiscardDiscards any datagram that is received 11UsersActive users 13DaytimeReturns the date and the time 17QuoteReturns a quote of the day 19ChargenReturns a string of characters 20FTP, DataFile Transfer Protocol (data connection) 21FTP, ControlFile Transfer Protocol (control connection) 23TELNETTerminal Network 25SMTPSimple Mail Transfer Protocol 53DNSDomain Name Server 67BOOTPBootstrap Protocol 79Finger 80HTTPHypertext Transfer Protocol 111RPCRemote Procedure Call

25 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Stream delivery

26 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Sending and receiving buffers

27 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure TCP segments

28 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Example 1 Imagine a TCP connection is transferring a file of 6000 bytes. The first byte is numbered What are the sequence numbers for each segment if data are sent in five segments with the first four segments carrying 1000 bytes and the last segment carrying 2000 bytes? Solution The following shows the sequence number for each segment: Segment 1 ==> sequence number: 10,010 (range: 10,010 to 11,009) Segment 2 ==> sequence number: 11,010 (range: 11,010 to 12,009) Segment 3 ==> sequence number: 12,010 (range: 12,010 to 13,009) Segment 4 ==> sequence number: 13,010 (range: 13,010 to 14,009) Segment 5 ==> sequence number: 14,010 (range: 14,010 to 16,009)

29 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 The bytes of data being transferred in each connection are numbered by TCP. The numbering starts with a randomly generated number. Note:

30 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 The value of the sequence number field in a segment defines the number of the first data byte contained in that segment. Note:

31 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 The value of the acknowledgment field in a segment defines the number of the next byte a party expects to receive. The acknowledgment number is cumulative. Note:

32 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure TCP segment format

33 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Control field

34 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 22.3 Description of flags in the control field FlagDescription URGThe value of the urgent pointer field is valid. ACKThe value of the acknowledgment field is valid. PSHPush the data. RSTThe connection must be reset. SYNSynchronize sequence numbers during connection. FINTerminate the connection.

35 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Three-step connection establishment

36 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Four-step connection termination

37 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 22.4 States for TCP StateDescription CLOSEDThere is no connection. LISTENThe server is waiting for calls from the client. SYN-SENTA connection request is sent; waiting for acknowledgment. SYN-RCVDA connection request is received. ESTABLISHEDConnection is established. FIN-WAIT-1The application has requested the closing of the connection. FIN-WAIT-2The other side has accepted the closing of the connection. TIME-WAITWaiting for retransmitted segments to die. CLOSE-WAITThe server is waiting for the application to close. LAST-ACKThe server is waiting for the last acknowledgment.

38 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure State transition diagram

39 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 A sliding window is used to make transmission more efficient as well as to control the flow of data so that the destination does not become overwhelmed with data. TCP’s sliding windows are byte-oriented. Note:

40 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Sender buffer

41 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Receiver window

42 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Sender buffer and sender window

43 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Sliding the sender window

44 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Expanding the sender window

45 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Shrinking the sender window

46 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 In TCP, the sender window size is totally controlled by the receiver window value (the number of empty locations in the receiver buffer). However, the actual window size can be smaller if there is congestion in the network. Note:

47 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Some points about TCP’s sliding windows: Note: The source does not have to send a full window’s worth of data. The size of the window can be increased or decreased by the destination. The destination can send an acknowledgment at any time.

48 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Lost segment

49 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Lost acknowledgment

50 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure TCP timers


Download ppt "McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transport Layer PART V."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google