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Xin Liu 1 Transport Layer Our goals: understand principles behind transport layer services: –multiplexing/demulti plexing –reliable data transfer –flow.

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Presentation on theme: "Xin Liu 1 Transport Layer Our goals: understand principles behind transport layer services: –multiplexing/demulti plexing –reliable data transfer –flow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Xin Liu 1 Transport Layer Our goals: understand principles behind transport layer services: –multiplexing/demulti plexing –reliable data transfer –flow control –congestion control learn about transport layer protocols in the Internet: –UDP: connectionless transport –TCP: connection-oriented transport –TCP congestion control Ref: slides by J. Kurose and K. Ross

2 Xin Liu 2 Outline Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Connection-oriented transport: TCP –segment structure –reliable data transfer –flow control –connection management TCP congestion control

3 Xin Liu 3 Transport services and protocols provide logical communication between app processes running on different hosts transport protocols run in end systems –send side: breaks app messages into segments, passes to network layer –rcv side: reassembles segments into messages, passes to app layer more than one transport protocol available to apps –Internet: TCP and UDP application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical logical end-end transport

4 Xin Liu 4 Transport vs. network layer network layer: logical communication between hosts transport layer: logical communication between processes –relies on, enhances, network layer services Household analogy: 12 kids sending letters to 12 kids processes = kids app messages = letters in envelopes hosts = houses transport protocol = Ann and Bill network-layer protocol = postal service

5 Xin Liu 5 Internet transport-layer protocols reliable, in-order delivery (TCP) –congestion control –flow control –connection setup unreliable, unordered delivery: UDP –no-frills extension of “best- effort” IP services not available: –delay guarantees –bandwidth guarantees application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical logical end-end transport

6 Xin Liu 6 Outline Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP –segment structure –reliable data transfer –flow control –connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control

7 Xin Liu 7 Multiplexing/demultiplexing application transport network link physical P1 application transport network link physical application transport network link physical P2 P3 P4 P1 host 1 host 2 host 3 = process= socket delivering received segments to correct socket Demultiplexing at rcv host: gathering data from multiple sockets, enveloping data with header (later used for demultiplexing) Multiplexing at send host:

8 Xin Liu 8 How demultiplexing works host receives IP datagrams –each datagram has source IP address, destination IP address –each datagram carries 1 transport-layer segment –each segment has source, destination port number (recall: well-known port numbers for specific applications) host uses IP addresses & port numbers to direct segment to appropriate socket source port #dest port # 32 bits application data (message) other header fields TCP/UDP segment format

9 Xin Liu 9 Connectionless demultiplexing Create sockets : sock=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_DGR AM, IPPROTO_UDP); bind(sock,(struct sockaddr *)&addr,sizeof(addr)); sendto(sock,buffer,size,0); recvfrom(sock,Buffer,buffers ize,0); UDP socket identified by two-tuple: ( dest IP address, dest port number) When host receives UDP segment: –checks destination port number in segment –directs UDP segment to socket with that port number IP datagrams with different source IP addresses and/or source port numbers directed to same socket

10 Xin Liu 10 Connection-oriented demux TCP socket identified by 4-tuple: –source IP address –source port number –dest IP address –dest port number recv host uses all four values to direct segment to appropriate socket Server host may support many simultaneous TCP sockets: –each socket identified by its own 4-tuple Web servers have different sockets for each connecting client –non-persistent HTTP will have different socket for each request

11 Xin Liu 11 Outline Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Connection-oriented transport: TCP –segment structure –reliable data transfer –flow control –connection management TCP congestion control

12 Xin Liu 12 UDP: User Datagram Protocol [RFC 768] “no frills,” “bare bones” Internet transport protocol “best effort” service, UDP segments may be: –lost –delivered out of order to app connectionless: –no handshaking between UDP sender, receiver –each UDP segment handled independently of others Why is there a UDP? no connection establishment (which can add delay) simple: no connection state at sender, receiver small segment header no congestion control: UDP can blast away as fast as desired

13 Xin Liu 13 DHCP client-server scenario DHCP server: arriving client time DHCP discover src : , 68 dest.: ,67 yiaddr: transaction ID: 654 DHCP offer src: , 67 dest: , 68 yiaddrr: transaction ID: 654 Lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP request src: , 68 dest:: , 67 yiaddrr: transaction ID: 655 Lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP ACK src: , 67 dest: , 68 yiaddrr: transaction ID: 655 Lifetime: 3600 secs

14 Xin Liu 14 Applications and protocols applicationApp_layer prtclTransport prtcl SMTPTCP Remote terminal access TelnetTCP WebHTTPTCP File transferFTPTCP StreamingproprietaryTypically UDP IP-phoneproprietaryTypically UDP RoutingRIPTypically UDP Name translation DNSTypically UDP Dynamic IPDHCPTypically UDP Network mng.SNMPTypically UDP

15 Xin Liu 15 UDP: more often used for streaming multimedia apps –loss tolerant –rate sensitive reliable transfer over UDP: add reliability at application layer –application-specific error recovery! source port #dest port # 32 bits Application data (message) UDP segment format length checksum Length, in bytes of UDP segment, including header

16 Xin Liu 16 Checksum Goal: detect “errors” (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted segment UDP header and data Pseudo header –Source/dest IP address –Protocol, length Same procedure for TCP

17 Xin Liu 17 UDP checksum Sender: treat segment contents as sequence of 16-bit integers checksum: addition (1’s complement sum) of segment contents sender puts checksum value into UDP checksum field Receiver: compute checksum of received segment check if computed checksum equals checksum field value: –NO - error detected –YES - no error detected. But maybe errors nonetheless? –may pass the damaged data

18 Xin Liu 18 Outline Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Connection-oriented transport: TCP –segment structure –reliable data transfer –flow control –connection management TCP congestion control

19 Xin Liu 19 TCP: Overview RFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581 full duplex data: –bi-directional data flow in same connection –MSS: maximum segment size connection-oriented: –handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init’s sender, receiver state before data exchange flow controlled: –sender will not overwhelm receiver point-to-point: –one sender, one receiver reliable, in-order byte steam: –no “message boundaries” pipelined: –TCP congestion and flow control set window size send & receive buffers

20 Xin Liu 20 TCP segment structure source port # dest port # 32 bits application data (variable length) sequence number acknowledgement number Receive window Urg data pnter checksum F SR PAU head len not used Options (variable length) URG: urgent data (generally not used) ACK: ACK # valid PSH: push data now RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) # bytes rcvr willing to accept counting by bytes of data (not segments!) Internet checksum (as in UDP) Urgent data pointer

21 Xin Liu 21 TCP Connection Management Recall: TCP sender, receiver establish “connection” before exchanging data segments initialize TCP variables: –seq. #s –buffers, flow control info (e.g. RcvWindow ) client: connection initiator –connect(); server: contacted by client –accept(); Three way handshake: Step 1: client host sends TCP SYN segment to server –specifies initial seq # –no data Step 2: server host receives SYN, replies with SYNACK segment –server allocates buffers –specifies server initial seq. # Step 3: client receives SYNACK, replies with ACK segment, which may contain data

22 Xin Liu 22 TCP Connection Management (cont.) Closing a connection: client closes socket: close(); Step 1: client end system sends TCP FIN control segment to server Step 2: server receives FIN, replies with ACK. Closes connection, sends FIN. client FIN server ACK FIN close closed timed wait

23 Xin Liu 23 TCP Connection Management (cont.) Step 3: client receives FIN, replies with ACK. –Enters “timed wait” - will respond with ACK to received FINs Step 4: server, receives ACK. Connection closed. Note: with small modification, can handle simultaneous FINs. client FIN server ACK FIN closing closed timed wait closed FIN_WAIT_2 FIN_WAIT_1 TIME_WAIT

24 Xin Liu 24 TCP Connection Management (cont) TCP client lifecycle TCP server lifecycle

25 Xin Liu 25 TCP Connection Management Allow half-close, i.e., one end to terminate its output, but still receiving data Allow simultaneous open Allow simultaneous close Crashes?

26 Xin Liu 26 liu]# tcpdump -S tcp port 22 tcpdump: listening on eth0 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh: S : (0) win 5840 (DF) 23:01: weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh > shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu.60042: S : (0) ack win (DF) 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh:. ack win 5840 (DF) 23:01: weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh > shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu.60042: P : (49) ack win (DF) 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh:. ack win 5840 (DF) 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh: P : (22) ack win 5840 (DF) 23:01: weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh > shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu.60042:. ack win (DF)

27 Xin Liu 27 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh: P : (64) ack win 7680 (DF) 23:01: weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh > shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu.60042: P : (1088) ack win (DF) 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh:. ack win 9792 (DF) 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh: F : (0) ack win 9792 (DF) 23:01: weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh > shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu.60042:. ack win (DF) 23:01: weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh > shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu.60042: F : (0) ack win (DF) 23:01: shannon.cs.ucdavis.edu > weasel.cs.ucdavis.edu.ssh:. ack win 9792 (DF) 26 packets received by filter 0 packets dropped by kernel

28 Xin Liu 28 Outline Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Connection-oriented transport: TCP –segment structure –reliable data transfer –flow control –connection management TCP congestion control

29 Xin Liu 29 TCP seq. #’s and ACKs Seq. #’s: –byte stream “number” of first byte in segment’s data ACKs: –seq # of next byte expected from other side –cumulative ACK Q: how receiver handles out- of-order segments –A: TCP spec doesn’t say, - up to implementor Host A Host B Seq=42, ACK=79, data = ‘C’ Seq=79, ACK=43, data = ‘C’ Seq=43, ACK=80 User types ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of echoed ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of ‘C’, echoes back ‘C’ time simple telnet scenario

30 Xin Liu 30 TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout Q: how to set TCP timeout value? longer than RTT –but RTT varies too short: premature timeout –unnecessary retransmissions too long: slow reaction to segment loss Q: how to estimate RTT? SampleRTT : measured time from segment transmission until ACK receipt –ignore retransmissions SampleRTT will vary, want estimated RTT “smoother” –average several recent measurements, not just current SampleRTT

31 Xin Liu 31 TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout EstimatedRTT = (1-  )*EstimatedRTT +  *SampleRTT Exponential weighted moving average influence of past sample decreases exponentially fast typical value:  = 0.125

32 Xin Liu 32 Example RTT estimation:

33 Xin Liu 33 TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout Setting the timeout EstimtedRTT plus “safety margin” –large variation in EstimatedRTT -> larger safety margin first estimate of how much SampleRTT deviates from EstimatedRTT: TimeoutInterval = EstimatedRTT + 4*DevRTT DevRTT = (1-  )*DevRTT +  *|SampleRTT-EstimatedRTT| (typically,  = 0.25) Then set timeout interval:

34 Xin Liu 34 RTT Timestamp can be used to measure RTT for each segment Better RTT estimate NO synchronization required

35 Xin Liu 35 TCP reliable data transfer TCP creates reliable service on top of IP’s unreliable service Pipelined segments Cumulative acks TCP uses single retransmission timer Retransmissions are triggered by: –timeout events –duplicate acks Initially consider simplified TCP sender: – ignore duplicate acks –ignore flow control, congestion control

36 Xin Liu 36 TCP sender events: data rcvd from app: Create segment with seq # seq # is byte-stream number of first data byte in segment start timer if not already running (think of timer as for oldest unacked segment) expiration interval: TimeOutInterval timeout: retransmit segment that caused timeout restart timer Ack rcvd: If acknowledges previously unacked segments –update what is known to be acked –start timer if there are outstanding segments

37 Xin Liu 37 TCP sender (simplified) NextSeqNum = InitialSeqNum SendBase = InitialSeqNum loop (forever) { switch(event) event: data received from application above create TCP segment with sequence number NextSeqNum if (timer currently not running) start timer pass segment to IP NextSeqNum = NextSeqNum + length(data) event: timer timeout retransmit not-yet-acknowledged segment with smallest sequence number start timer event: ACK received, with ACK field value of y if (y > SendBase) { SendBase = y if (there are currently not-yet-acknowledged segments) start timer } } /* end of loop forever */ Comment: SendBase-1: last cumulatively ack’ed byte Example: SendBase-1 = 71; y= 73, so the rcvr wants 73+ ; y > SendBase, so that new data is acked

38 Xin Liu 38 TCP: retransmission scenarios Host A Seq=100, 20 bytes data ACK=100 time premature timeout Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=120 Seq=92, 8 bytes data Seq=92 timeout ACK=120 Host A Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 loss timeout lost ACK scenario Host B X Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 time Seq=92 timeout SendBase = 100 SendBase = 120 SendBase = 120 Sendbase = 100

39 Xin Liu 39 TCP retransmission scenarios (more) Host A Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 loss timeout Cumulative ACK scenario Host B X Seq=100, 20 bytes data ACK=120 time SendBase = 120

40 Xin Liu 40 TCP ACK generation [RFC 1122, RFC 2581] Event at Receiver Arrival of in-order segment with expected seq #. All data up to expected seq # already ACKed Arrival of in-order segment with expected seq #. One other segment has ACK pending Arrival of out-of-order segment higher-than-expect seq. #. Gap detected Arrival of segment that partially or completely fills gap TCP Receiver action Delayed ACK. Wait up to 500ms for next segment. If no next segment, send ACK Immediately send single cumulative ACK, ACKing both in-order segments Immediately send duplicate ACK, indicating seq. # of next expected byte Immediate send ACK, provided that segment startsat lower end of gap

41 Xin Liu 41 TCP Flow Control receive side of TCP connection has a receive buffer: speed-matching service: matching the send rate to the receiving app’s drain rate app process may be slow at reading from buffer sender won’t overflow receiver’s buffer by transmitting too much, too fast flow control

42 Xin Liu 42 TCP Flow control: how it works (Suppose TCP receiver discards out-of-order segments) spare room in buffer = RcvWindow = RcvBuffer-[LastByteRcvd - LastByteRead] Rcvr advertises spare room by including value of RcvWindow in segments Sender limits unACKed data to RcvWindow –guarantees receive buffer doesn’t overflow

43 Xin Liu 43 More Slow receiver –Ack new window Long fat pipeline: high speed link and/or long RTT Window scale option during handshaking

44 Xin Liu 44 Header source port # dest port # 32 bits application data (variable length) sequence number acknowledgement number Receive window Urg data pnter checksum F SR PAU head len not used Options (variable length)

45 Xin Liu 45 Outline Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Connection-oriented transport: TCP –segment structure –reliable data transfer –flow control –connection management TCP congestion control

46 Xin Liu 46 Principles of Congestion Control Congestion: informally: “too many sources sending too much data too fast for network to handle” different from flow control! Who benefits? manifestations: –lost packets (buffer overflow at routers) –long delays (queueing in router buffers) a top-10 problem!

47 Xin Liu 47 TCP Congestion Control end-end control (no network assistance) sender limits transmission: LastByteSent-LastByteAcked  cwnd Roughly, cwnd is dynamic, function of perceived network congestion How does sender perceive congestion? loss event = timeout or 3 duplicate acks TCP sender reduces rate ( cwnd ) after loss event mechanisms: –slow start –congestion avoidance –AIMD rate = cwnd RTT Bytes/sec

48 Xin Liu 48 TCP Slow Start When connection begins, cwnd = 1 MSS –Example: MSS = 500 bytes & RTT = 200 msec –initial rate = 20 kbps available bandwidth may be >> MSS/RTT –desirable to quickly ramp up to respectable rate When connection begins, increase cwnd when an ack received

49 Xin Liu 49 TCP Slow Start (more) When connection begins, increase rate exponentially until first loss event: –incrementing cwnd for every ACK received –double cwnd every RTT Summary: initial rate is slow but ramps up exponentially fast Host A one segment RTT Host B time two segments four segments

50 Xin Liu 50 Congestion Avoidance ssthresh: when cwnd reaches ssthresh, congestion avoidance begins Congestion avoidance: increase cwnd by 1/cwnd each time an ACK is received Congestion happens: ssthresh=max(2MSS, cwnd/2)

51 Xin Liu 51 TCP AIMD multiplicative decrease: cut cwnd in half after loss event additive increase: increase cwnd by 1 MSS every RTT in the absence of loss events: probing Long-lived TCP connection

52 Xin Liu 52 Reno vs. Tahoe After 3 dup ACKs: –cwnd is cut in half –window then grows linearly But after timeout event: –cwnd instead set to 1 MSS; –window then grows exponentially –to a sshthresh, then grows linearly 3 dup ACKs indicates network capable of delivering some segments timeout before 3 dup ACKs is “more alarming” Philosophy:

53 Xin Liu 53 Summary: TCP Congestion Control When cwnd is below sshthresh, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially. When cwnd is above sshthresh, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly. When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, sshthresh set to cwnd/2 and cwnd set to sshthresh. When timeout occurs, sshthresh set to cwnd/2 and cwnd is set to 1 MSS.

54 Xin Liu 54 Trend Recent research proposes network-assisted congestion control: active queue management ECN: explicit congestion notification –2 bits: 6 &7 in the IP TOS field RED: random early detection –Implicit –Can be adapted to explicit methods by marking instead of dropping

55 Xin Liu 55 Wireless TCP Motivation –Wireless channels are unreliable and time- varying –Cause TCP timeout/Duplicate acks Approaches


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