Presentation on theme: "COEN 252 Computer Forensics Tools for Package Analysis."— Presentation transcript:
COEN 252 Computer Forensics Tools for Package Analysis.
Legal Preliminaries Intercepting network activities can be the equivalent of a wiretap. Distinguish between content monitoring and non-content monitoring. Non-content monitoring: “Pen register” or “Trap and Trace” Full content monitoring: Allows full reconstruction of sessions. Including reading web-based email.
Main Tools tcpdump /windump Great, simple capture tool Standard format tcptrace Ethereal Great GUI capture tool
TCPDump / Windump Low level package sniffer. Good, if you see a new type of attack or try to diagnose a networking problem. Bad, since you have to look at all these packages and learn how to interpret them.
TCPDump / Windump: The Good Provides an audit trail of network activity. Provides absolute fidelity. Universally available and cheap.
TCPDump / Windump: The Bad Does not collect the payload by default. Does not scale well. State / connections are hidden. Very Limited analysis of packages. Collects a given number of bytes from each package: This could turn “trap and trace” monitoring into wiretaping because content might be captured.
tcpdump Length of capture: tcpdump –s 68 Default is 68B We see only 54B, because the ethernet header is 14B long. Remember, this could become a legal problem if you see content.
tcpdump tcpdump –e host bobadilla Displays data link data filtered by host named bobadilla. Shows Source MAC Destination MAC Protocol 20:37:48.124457 0:8:74:3f:2:46 0:d:56:8:e4:db ip 142: IP dhcp-19- 211.engr.scu.edu > Bobadilla.scu.edu: icmp 108: echo request seq 5376
Tcpdump Fragmentation Total Length Total Length: Number of Bytes in Packet 20:42:07.217979 IP Bobadilla.scu.edu.137 > 18.104.22.168.137: udp 50 4500 004e 892b 0000 0111 aae1 81d2 13c6 efff fffa 0089 0089 003a adb9 8ce2 0000 0001 0000 0000 0000 2043 4b41 4141 4141 4141 4141 4141 4141 4141 4141 4141 4141 4100 0021 0001
TCPDump Filters Capture only packages that are useful. Specify in the filter what items are interesting. Filters use common fields such as host or port. Filters also for individual bytes and bits in the datagram
TCPDump Filters Format 1: macro and value “tcpdump port 23” Only displays packages going to or from port 23.
TCPDump Filters Format 2: [offset:length] “ip = 1” Selects any record with the IP protocol of 1. “icmp = 8” Selects any record that is an ICMP echo requests. That’s why you should learn to use the reference card.
TCPDump Filters Reference single bits through bit masking. An example is TCP flag bits Byte 13 in a TCP header has the 8 flag fields. CWR,ECE,URG,ACK,PSH,RST,SYN,FIN
TCPDump Filters Assume we want to mask out the PSH field. Translate the mask into binary. 0x08
TCPDump Filters Set filter to tcp & 0x80 != 0. Your turn: Filter for packets that have the Syn or the Ack flag set.
TCPDump Filters Your turn: Filter for packets that have the Syn or the Ack flag set. tcp & 0x12 != 0
TCPDump Filters We can of course use exact values for filtering. tcp = 0x20 looks only for tcp-packets that have the urg flag set.
TCPDump Filters Can combine filters with the and, or, not operators (tcp and tcp&0x0f != 0 and not port 25) or port 20 Filter can be written in file, specified with the –F flag.
TCPDump Filters Use –F filename to specify a file containing the filter.
TCPDump Use the –w extension to capture into a file. Use the –c extension to limit the number of packets captured. Use –v, -vv, -vvv for verbosity. Use –x for ASCI values of package contents. Use –tttt to display time / day stamps. Use –r to specify capture file.
Target NMap Available in Windows and Unix version. Scans host with many different connections. Uses responses to determine OS. Target Acquisition. Network mapping.
TCPDump Filter against NMap Use Filters to check for NMap activity. For example, send a TCP packet with SYN|FIN|URG|PSH options set. Use packages with the first two TCP flags set of OS-mapping
tcptrace Uses a file with traffic captured from the network as input. Understands dumpfile formats like tcpdump, snoop, etherpeek, tcpdump, … Beluga:/Users/mani> tcptrace tigris.dmp 1 arg remaining, starting with 'tigris.dmp' Ostermann's tcptrace -- version 6.4.5 -- Fri Jun 13, 2003 87 packets seen, 87 TCP packets traced elapsed wallclock time: 0:00:00.037900, 2295 pkts/sec analyzed trace file elapsed time: 0:00:12.180796 TCP connection info: 1: pride.cs.ohiou.edu:54735 - elephus.cs.ohiou.edu:ssh (a2b) 30> 30< (complete) 2: pride.cs.ohiou.edu:54736 - a17-112-152-32.apple.com:http (c2d) 12> 15< (complete)
tcptrace Found two tcp connections. (a2b), (c2d) is a labelling scheme for ports. (complete) shows that the connection was gracefully shut down. Numbers are the number of packets sent and received. Beluga:/Users/mani> tcptrace tigris.dmp 1 arg remaining, starting with 'tigris.dmp' Ostermann's tcptrace -- version 6.4.5 -- Fri Jun 13, 2003 87 packets seen, 87 TCP packets traced elapsed wallclock time: 0:00:00.037900, 2295 pkts/sec analyzed trace file elapsed time: 0:00:12.180796 TCP connection info: 1: pride.cs.ohiou.edu:54735 - elephus.cs.ohiou.edu:ssh (a2b) 30> 30< (complete) 2: pride.cs.ohiou.edu:54736 - a17-112-152-32.apple.com:http (c2d) 12> 15< (complete)
tcptrace -l gives detailed statistics. -lW estimates the congestion window in addition. -o can filter out connections: tcptrace –o3,5,7 Filters out all but the third, fifth, and seventh connection.
tcptrace Allows quick and accurate view of tcp connections. With –u also analyzes udp traffic.
tcpflow Captures data transmitted as a TCP connection A flow Reconstructs the actual data stream. Can be used to reconstruct email, http sessions, … www.circlemud.org/~jelson/software/tcpflo w/tcpflow.1.html
Ethereal GUI tool that can do a lot of neat things Reconstruct TCP sessions Handles IP fragmentation …
Ethereal Window broken into: Summary Window Protocol Tree Window Data View Window
Ethereal Summary Window: Frame Number Time Source Destination Protocol Info
Ethereal Protocol Tree Window Summarizes all layer information Frame Ethernet Network layer Transport layer Application layer
Ethereal Data View Window Actual frame Highlighting on a protocol field highlights the corresponding data in the packet itself
Ethereal Filter Bar: Filter strings restricts which packages are displayed in the summary window. Can look at previously defined filter in a session. Menu Bar: File: Export allows portion of package highlighted in the Data View Window to be exported. Open allows importing capture files for analysis.
Ethereal Menu Bar: Edit: Time reference toggle allows to set a reference point. Capture: Intercepting packets, storing them in a temporary file and analyzing them with Ethereal. Ring buffer: Limits number and size of capture files. Overwrites oldest capture file.
Ethereal Menu Bar: Analyze: Allows to set new filter. Change lists of enabled protocols. Allows to follow a tcp stream: Time-Sequence Graph tcptrace Time-Sequence Graph Stevens: TCP/IP Illustrated Book Throughput Graph RTT Graph Statistics
Ethereal To follow a TCP stream, highlight packet. Select Analyze Follow TCP Stream
Ethereal Filters Only packages that fit the filter are captured. Available filter fields are under Help Supported Protocols
Ethereal Filters Use IP addresses host 22.214.171.124 host 2::8100:2:30a:c392:fc5a Use names host bobadilla host www.cse.scu.edu Use src, dst src host bobadilla.engr.scu.edu Hardware addresses ether dst host 00:0d:56:08:e4:db Port Uses keyword port tcp port http
Ethereal Filters Comparisons are specified with 2 letter abbreviations or C-like syntax ip.addr==10.0.0.5 ip.addr!=10.0.0.5 frame.pkt_len ge 0x100 and tcp tr.dst[0:3] == 0.6.29 xor tr.src[0:3] == 0.6.29
Ethereal Filters Expressions can be combined with English or C-like syntax ip.addr eq 10.0.0.5 and tcp.flags.fin tcp.flags.syn || tcp.flags.ack
Ethereal Filters Ethereal allows selection of subsequences. After a label, place a pair of brackets containing a comma separated list of range specifiers: eth.src[0:3] == 00:00:83 eth.src[1-2] == 00:83 eth.src[0:3,1-2,:4,4:,2] == 00:00:83:00:83:00:00:83:00:20:20:83
Other programs that come with ethereal Tethereal (command-line version) Editcap Remove or select packages from a file Translate format of capture file. Mergecap Combine multiple capture files Text2pcap Takes ASCII hex dump captures Creates libpcap output
Ethereal Dealing with capture files Ethereal can read files and save files in format tcpdump sun snoop and atmsnoop Microsoft Network monitor Network Associates Sniffer Shomiti/Finisar Surveyor Novell LANalyzer …