Presentation on theme: "Napoleon Forges an Empire. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Born on island of Corsica Military School at 9 yrs. & lieutenant in artillery at 16. Only."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Born on island of Corsica Military School at 9 yrs. & lieutenant in artillery at 16. Only 5 ‘ 3” tall! He joined army of new government, ousted British from Toulon in 1793, & became General at age 25. Married Josephine de Beauharnais Oct. 1795 – Royalists marched on National Convention & Napoleon becomes savior of the new French Republic.
A Military Genius 1796 – the Directory sends him vs. Austria & Kingdom of Sardinia – he crossed the Alps & won a series of great victories in Italy. He became an instant hero in France & his picture was everywhere. He was compared to Julius Caesar & Alexander the Great. He said “In Italy I realized I was a superior being & conceived the ambition of performing great things.” He wanted to rule France!
Napoleon Invades Egypt 1797 – Britain was only one left fighting France & the Directory wanted to invade England. Instead, Napoleon suggests & led an attack on Egypt to threaten British India. British admiral Lord Nelson destroyed a French fleet at Battle of Nile & his army was pinned down in Egypt. Napoleon kept these stories out of papers & returned once again a hero on Oct. 8, 1799.
France Needs a Leader The Directory had failed – couldn’t make repairs, supply food, & it was corrupt, but it wouldn’t hand over power. Nov. 10, 1799 – Council of Elders & Council of 500 attacked him & he had to be helped away by his soldiers. “Kill anyone who resists. Follow me! I am the god of battles.” His brother Lucien helped rally troops by holding sword on his brother. They fixed bayonets & drove the Directory’s deputies from power in a coup d’etat.
A Short-lived Peace Comes to Europe The lawmakers who remained voted to establish a government of three consuls – one was Napoleon – he became Dictator of France. Napoleon led his troops from Paris to deal with Britain & their new allies Russia & Austria who wanted him out of power. 1802 – due to war & diplomacy –all three had made peace with France. Now he could focus on reforms.
Exit Slip – Napoleon Seizes Power 1. T or F: Napoleon became a hero when he saved the French Republic from royalist rebels. 2. T or F: Napoleon won a key victory in Egypt that led to the defeat of the British Army and Navy. 3. T or F: Napoleon’s coup d’etat led to him becoming first consul and dictator of France. 4. T or F: By 1802 Napoleon had defeated or signed treaties with his enemies and Europe was at peace for the first time in ten years.
Bell Ringer–Napoleon Forges an Empire 1. How old was Napoleon when he became a general? 2. In what nation was Napoleon in when he first realized he wanted to rule France? 3. In spite of military failure in ______, Napoleon misled his people and returned a hero. 4. What governing body did Napoleon overthrow during his 1799 coup d’ etat?
Napoleon Rules France 1800 – by Plebiscite (vote of the people) – voters chose new constitution because they were desperate for leadership. 1 st Consul had all the power. Napoleon passed laws to strengthened the federal gov’t & free it from corruption. Established a national bank & new system of tax collection to give him control of the economy.
Other Reforms of Napoleon Lycees (government-run public schools for males) to provide trained public officials hired on merit & not family connections. He signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII that recognized influence of Church, but rejected Church control in national affairs. Napoleonic Code – gave France a uniform set of laws
Napoleon’s Coronation as Emperor of France Dec 2, 1804 – Notre Dame Cathedral –he took the crown from the pope to show he was bigger than Church Josephine was crowned Empress This move was supported by French citizens
Exit Slip – Napoleon Rules France 1. Napoleon established _______, or government-run public schools, to provide the government with trained, honest officials. a. plebiscites b. colleges c. lycees 2. The concordat with the pope gave the ________ supremacy over government affairs. a. pope b. second consul c. Napoleon 3. Napoleon believed his greatest achievement for France was the ________. a. Napoleonic Code b. defeat of Austria c. national bank 4. Who crowned Napoleon emperor in 1804? a. the pope b. Napoleon c. Josephine
Napoleon Loses American Territories 1789 – Ideals of Revolution reached St. Dominique (now Haiti on Hispaniola) Valued for sugar industry & Afr. slaves provided labor force Toussaint L’Ouverture led revolt & French defeated in 1801 by rebels & disease Napoleon abandons idea of American empire
The Louisiana Purchase 1803 – The U.S. wanted to buy the port of New Orleans Napoleon offered all of Louisiana Territory to President Thomas Jefferson for $15 million. It doubled the size of U.S. Napoleon needed money and he wanted to punish Britain.
Napoleon Conquers Europe Netherlands & parts of Italy already annexed. Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden form an alliance to stop French expansion. By end of 1805, Aust., Russia, Prussia were defeated. Largest empire since Romans. Only Great Britain was left.
The Battle of Trafalgar (1805) Napoleon’s only defeat was a loss at sea to British Navy. Admiral Nelson split French fleet off coast of Spain and captured & sunk many ships. Napoleon could not invade Britain & Britain would control seas for next 100 years. His obsession with crushing Britain would later do him in!
The French Empire 1812 – only Britain, Sweden, Portugal, & Ottoman Empire were free from Napoleon Puppet rulers, like his brother Joseph of Spain, ruled much of Germany, Poland, & Italy. He introduced the Napoleonic Code, reduced Church power, & ended serfdom; some saw him as a liberator, but as he taxed and drafted, people soon grew tired of him. The empire was huge, but unstable & he would eventually be his own worst enemy.
Napoleon’s Fear? He was worried about what would become of the empire after his death. Josephine bore him no children so he divorced her. He married Marie Louise (Marie Antoinette’s grand niece) to build an alliance with Austria. She bore him a son, Napoleon II, whom Napoleon named King of Rome.
Exit Slip – Napoleon Creates an Empire 1. Na poleon gave up on an American empire in 1801 after a successful slave revolt in ________. a. St. Luciab. Haiti c. Guiana 2. To gain money and punish Britain, Napoleon sold _________ to the United States in 1803. a. Louisiana b. Texas c. Oregon 3. France suffered a devastating loss to _________ in the 1805 naval Battle of Trafalgar. a. Russia b. Great Britain c. Sweden 4. Napoleon’s brother Joseph was the puppet ruler of ________. a. Spain b. Italy c. Prussia