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Napoleon Forges an Empire. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)  Born on island of Corsica  Military School at 9 yrs. & lieutenant in artillery at 16.  Only.

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Presentation on theme: "Napoleon Forges an Empire. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)  Born on island of Corsica  Military School at 9 yrs. & lieutenant in artillery at 16.  Only."— Presentation transcript:

1 Napoleon Forges an Empire

2 Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)  Born on island of Corsica  Military School at 9 yrs. & lieutenant in artillery at 16.  Only 5 ‘ 3” tall!  He joined army of new government, ousted British from Toulon in 1793, & became General at age 25.  Married Josephine de Beauharnais  Oct. 1795 – Royalists marched on National Convention & Napoleon becomes savior of the new French Republic.

3 A Military Genius  1796 – the Directory sends him vs. Austria & Kingdom of Sardinia – he crossed the Alps & won a series of great victories in Italy.  He became an instant hero in France & his picture was everywhere. He was compared to Julius Caesar & Alexander the Great.  He said “In Italy I realized I was a superior being & conceived the ambition of performing great things.” He wanted to rule France!

4 Napoleon Invades Egypt  1797 – Britain was only one left fighting France & the Directory wanted to invade England.  Instead, Napoleon suggests & led an attack on Egypt to threaten British India.  British admiral Lord Nelson destroyed a French fleet at Battle of Nile & his army was pinned down in Egypt.  Napoleon kept these stories out of papers & returned once again a hero on Oct. 8, 1799.

5 France Needs a Leader  The Directory had failed – couldn’t make repairs, supply food, & it was corrupt, but it wouldn’t hand over power.  Nov. 10, 1799 – Council of Elders & Council of 500 attacked him & he had to be helped away by his soldiers.  “Kill anyone who resists. Follow me! I am the god of battles.” His brother Lucien helped rally troops by holding sword on his brother.  They fixed bayonets & drove the Directory’s deputies from power in a coup d’etat.

6 A Short-lived Peace Comes to Europe  The lawmakers who remained voted to establish a government of three consuls – one was Napoleon – he became Dictator of France.  Napoleon led his troops from Paris to deal with Britain & their new allies Russia & Austria who wanted him out of power.  1802 – due to war & diplomacy –all three had made peace with France. Now he could focus on reforms.

7 Exit Slip – Napoleon Seizes Power 1. T or F: Napoleon became a hero when he saved the French Republic from royalist rebels. 2. T or F: Napoleon won a key victory in Egypt that led to the defeat of the British Army and Navy. 3. T or F: Napoleon’s coup d’etat led to him becoming first consul and dictator of France. 4. T or F: By 1802 Napoleon had defeated or signed treaties with his enemies and Europe was at peace for the first time in ten years.

8 Bell Ringer–Napoleon Forges an Empire 1. How old was Napoleon when he became a general? 2. In what nation was Napoleon in when he first realized he wanted to rule France? 3. In spite of military failure in ______, Napoleon misled his people and returned a hero. 4. What governing body did Napoleon overthrow during his 1799 coup d’ etat?

9 Napoleon Rules France  1800 – by Plebiscite (vote of the people) – voters chose new constitution because they were desperate for leadership. 1 st Consul had all the power.  Napoleon passed laws to strengthened the federal gov’t & free it from corruption.  Established a national bank & new system of tax collection to give him control of the economy.

10 Other Reforms of Napoleon  Lycees (government-run public schools for males) to provide trained public officials hired on merit & not family connections.  He signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII that recognized influence of Church, but rejected Church control in national affairs.  Napoleonic Code – gave France a uniform set of laws

11 Napoleon’s Coronation as Emperor of France  Dec 2, 1804 – Notre Dame Cathedral –he took the crown from the pope to show he was bigger than Church  Josephine was crowned Empress  This move was supported by French citizens

12 Exit Slip – Napoleon Rules France 1. Napoleon established _______, or government-run public schools, to provide the government with trained, honest officials. a. plebiscites b. colleges c. lycees 2. The concordat with the pope gave the ________ supremacy over government affairs. a. pope b. second consul c. Napoleon 3. Napoleon believed his greatest achievement for France was the ________. a. Napoleonic Code b. defeat of Austria c. national bank 4. Who crowned Napoleon emperor in 1804? a. the pope b. Napoleon c. Josephine

13 Napoleon Loses American Territories  1789 – Ideals of Revolution reached St. Dominique (now Haiti on Hispaniola)  Valued for sugar industry & Afr. slaves provided labor force  Toussaint L’Ouverture led revolt & French defeated in 1801 by rebels & disease  Napoleon abandons idea of American empire

14 The Louisiana Purchase  1803 – The U.S. wanted to buy the port of New Orleans  Napoleon offered all of Louisiana Territory to President Thomas Jefferson for $15 million.  It doubled the size of U.S.  Napoleon needed money and he wanted to punish Britain.

15 Napoleon Conquers Europe  Netherlands & parts of Italy already annexed.  Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden form an alliance to stop French expansion.  By end of 1805, Aust., Russia, Prussia were defeated.  Largest empire since Romans.  Only Great Britain was left.

16 The Battle of Trafalgar (1805)  Napoleon’s only defeat was a loss at sea to British Navy.  Admiral Nelson split French fleet off coast of Spain and captured & sunk many ships.  Napoleon could not invade Britain & Britain would control seas for next 100 years.  His obsession with crushing Britain would later do him in!

17 The French Empire  1812 – only Britain, Sweden, Portugal, & Ottoman Empire were free from Napoleon  Puppet rulers, like his brother Joseph of Spain, ruled much of Germany, Poland, & Italy.  He introduced the Napoleonic Code, reduced Church power, & ended serfdom; some saw him as a liberator, but as he taxed and drafted, people soon grew tired of him.  The empire was huge, but unstable & he would eventually be his own worst enemy.

18 Napoleon’s Fear?  He was worried about what would become of the empire after his death.  Josephine bore him no children so he divorced her.  He married Marie Louise (Marie Antoinette’s grand niece) to build an alliance with Austria.  She bore him a son, Napoleon II, whom Napoleon named King of Rome.

19 Exit Slip – Napoleon Creates an Empire 1. Na poleon gave up on an American empire in 1801 after a successful slave revolt in ________. a. St. Luciab. Haiti c. Guiana 2. To gain money and punish Britain, Napoleon sold _________ to the United States in 1803. a. Louisiana b. Texas c. Oregon 3. France suffered a devastating loss to _________ in the 1805 naval Battle of Trafalgar. a. Russia b. Great Britain c. Sweden 4. Napoleon’s brother Joseph was the puppet ruler of ________. a. Spain b. Italy c. Prussia

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