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New Testament Survey Prepared and Presented By: M. Dean Morgan 1.

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1 New Testament Survey Prepared and Presented By: M. Dean Morgan 1

2 Introduction In order to understand aspects of Jesus’ teachings, we must try to hear Him as First-century Galileans heard Him. Only after we understand the meaning of the New Testament in its original context will we be able to interpret it for our time. 2

3 Introduction Intertestamental history covers the period between the writing of the final books of the Old and New Testaments. The conquests of Alexander the Great (334 B.C.) and the Bar Kochba Revolt (A.D ) serve as the outer limits of this period. 3

4 Introduction The span between the close of the O.T. and the opening of the N.T. times is about 400 years. By 168 – 164 B.C., Antiochus Epiphanies IV, king of Syria, sought to bring the Jews under the sway of Grecian culture and religions. 4

5 Introduction: Koine Greek became the common language of the eastern Mediterranean. Koine means “common or profane.” Hellenism emphasized education, physical development, athletic contests, art, sculpture, drama, and philosophy. Hasidim, or “pious ones” The celebration is called Hanukkah, the festival of lights. 5

6 Introduction Herod Antipas (one of the sons of Herod) was the son who played the most important role in the events of the N.T. Pharisees = “the Separated Ones” with three possible meanings: 1.to their separating themselves from people 2.to their separating themselves to study of the law (“dividing” or “separating” the truth) 3.to their separating themselves from pagan practices 6

7 Introduction: Pharisee Beliefs Monotheistic (One God) Viewed entirety of the O.T. (Torah, Prophets, and Writings) as authoritative. Believed that the study of the law was true worship Accepted both the written and oral law More liberal in interpreting the law than the Sadducees Quite concerned with the proper keeping of the Sabbath, tithing, and the purification rituals 7

8 Introduction: Pharisee Beliefs Believed in life after death and resurrection of the body (with divine retribution and reward) Revered humanity and human equality Believed in the reality of demons and angels Missionary-minded regarding the conversion of Gentiles Believed that individuals were responsible for how they lived 8

9 Introduction: Sadducees Sadducees = Three possible translations: 1.“The righteous Ones” – based on the Hebrew consonants for the word righteous 2.“Ones who sympathize with Zadok”, or “Zadokites”-based on their possible link to Zadok the high priest syndikoi 3.“syndics”, “judges”, or “fiscal controllers” –based on the Greek word syndiloi 9

10 Introduction: Sadducees Beliefs Accepted only the Torah (Genesis to Deuteronomy)-the written law of Moses as authoritative Practiced literal interpretation of the law Rigidly conservative toward the law Observed past beliefs and tradition Opposed oral law as obligatory or binding 10

11 Introduction: Sadducees Beliefs Believed in the absolute freedom of human will – that people could do as they wished without attention from God Denied divine providence Denied the concept of life after death and the resurrection of the body Denied the concept of reward and punishment after death Denied the existence of angels and demons Materialistic 11

12 Introduction: Zealots Their name refers to their religious zeal. Extremely opposed to Roman rule over Palestine Extremely opposed to peace with Rome Demonstrated against the use of the Greek language in Palestine Engaged in terrorism against Rome and others with who they disagreed politically (Siscarii {or Sssassins} were an extremist Zealot group who carried out acts of terrorism against Rome.) 12

13 Introduction: Herodians Their name is based on their support of the Herodian rulers. Their Beliefs: Not a religious group – but a political one Membership probably was comprised of representatives of varied theological perspectives 13

14 Introduction: Essenes/Beliefs Very strict ascetics Monastic: most took vow of celibacy (adopting male children in order to perpetuate the group), but some did marry (for purpose of procreation) Rigidly adherent to the law (including a strict rendering of the ethical teachings) Believed and lived as pacifists Rejected temple worship and temple offerings as corrupted Believed in the immortality of the soul with no bodily resurrection Apocalyptically oriented 14

15 The Synagogue Preexilic. Exilic. Postexilic. Maccabean. 15

16 The Synagogue The head of the synagogue was the archisynagogos. The hazzan was the assistant. 16

17 The Synagogue: Elements Of Worship 1.The Shema 2.The Decalogue 3.The Eighteen Benedictions 4.The Scripture lesson 5.Psalms 6.The Homily 7.The Blessing 17

18 Introduction For historical purposes there are two men which stand out: PHILO JOSEPHUS 18

19 Names Of Christ 1.Jesus 2.Christ 3.Jesus Christ 4.Christ Jesus 5.Lord Jesus Christ 6.Son of God 7.Son of Man 8.Son of David 19

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22 Understanding The Gospels Subject: The history of the birth, life, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ. Purpose: To reveal how God accomplished the work of redemption, and to give us a foundation for the doctrines in the Epistles. 22

23 Understanding The Gospels Matthew – the Teachings of Christ Mark – the Works of Christ Luke – the Parables of Christ John – the Conversations of Christ 23

24 Dr. Van Dyke “If four witnesses should appear before a judge to give an account of a certain event, and each should tell exactly the same story in the same words, the judge would probably conclude, not that their testimony was exceptionally valuable, but that the only event which was certain beyond doubt was that they had agreed to tell the same story. But if each man had told what he had seen, as he had seen it, then the evidence would be credible. And when we read the four Gospels, is not that exactly what we find? The four men tell the same story each in his own way. 24

25 Understanding The Gospels The first three Gospels, called the Synoptics have much material in common. The Gospels tell us WHEN and HOW Christ came. The Epistles tell us WHY and FOR WHAT Christ came. He [Jesus] is presented as: King in Matthew, Servant in Mark, Son of Man in Luke, Son of God in John. 25

26 Jesus In The Four Gospels Matthew is concerned with the coming of a Promised Savior. Mark is concerned with the life of a Powerful Savior. Luke is concerned with the grace of a Perfect Savior. John is concerned with the possession of a Personal Savior. 26

27 Mark The Book Of Christ The Servant 27

28 Mark Mark means “hammer”. Purpose: He sets out to prove that Jesus of Nazareth is the Servant of God, who wholly fulfills the Father’s will, and that we should serve as we follow Him. This gospel account has been called “the shortest and clearest, the most marvelous, and at the same time the most satisfactory history in the world”. 28

29 Mark Alone Records: 1.The parable of fasting – teach us the need to fast and pray: 2: The parable of one soil; the seed growing secretly – to teach us the need to grow in grace 4:26-29 with 2Peter 3:18 3.Cure of the deaf and dumb man 7: Cure of the blind man at Bethsaida 8:

30 Mark: General Characteristics There is nothing about the virgin birth. There is no visit of wise men. No account of Jesus as the boy in the Temple is given. There is no Sermon on the Mount. No quotations from the prophets are imparted. 30

31 Mark: General Characteristics No divine titles are used. There is no statement that His work was finished at His death. Miracles have a leading place in Mark as parables have in Matthew. 31

32 Mark Key Chapter: 10 Christ’s purpose of ministry. Key Verse: 10:45. Key Word: Straightway, found 42 times. Key Phrase: And immediately He: 1;20. Key Thought: Behold My Servant: Isaiah 42:1 Christ is Seen as: God’s righteous Servant: Isaiah 53:11. 32

33 Matthew The Book Of Christ The King 33

34 Matthew Matthew means “the gift of God”. Contents: This book is a divinely inspired account of the birth, life, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus of Nazareth, the Messiah of Jewish prophecy. Subject: The teachings (discourses) of Christ. Purpose: To prove that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham. 34

35 Matthew: Reasons For Writing His Gospel 1.He wanted to convince non- Christian Jews of the truth of Christianity. 2.He sought to explain to Christians how their religion is the fulfillment of God’s promises and patterns of activity in the O.T. 3.He wanted to give young believers basic instructions in Christian living. 35

36 Matthew: Reasons For Writing His Gospel 4.He wanted to encourage his church in the midst of persecution from hostile authorities in both Jewish and Roman circles. 5.He desired to deepen Christian faith by supplying more details about Jesus’ words and works. 36

37 Matthew Key Chapter: 16, which contains Peter’s confession of Christ. Key Verse: 1:1. Key Words: 1.King (Christ as ), which occurs 5 times. 2.Kingdom, which occurs 50 times. 37

38 Matthew Key Phrase: That it might be fulfilled: 1:22 Key Thought: Christ’s Ministry: 20:28 Spiritual Thought: Repent Christ is seen as: King of the Jews: 2:2 38

39 Luke The Book Of Christ The Perfect Man 39

40 Luke Luke means “luminous” – a light. Matthew presents Christ as King-- to the Jews. Mark presents Him as the Servant of Jehovah—to the Romans. Luke presents Him as the perfect Man – to the Greeks 40

41 Luke In Luke we see God manifest in the flesh. In this Gospel we see the God of glory coming down to our level, entering into our conditions, and being subject to our circumstances. We learn from this Gospel that as a boy, Jesus developed naturally (2:40, 52). 41

42 Luke Luke is the Gospel for the outcast on earth. Luke is a poetic book. Luke speaks more of the prayers of our Lord than any other Gospel writer. Subject: The illustrative truths (parables) of Christ. 42

43 Luke Purpose: To prove that Jesus is the Son of Man, the Savior of the world. (19:10). Scope: Luke covers a period of about 34 years. When and Where Written: Sometime between A.D , probably at Philippi or Caesarea. Key Chapter: 15. The “Lost and Found” chapter. 43

44 Luke Key Verse: 19:10 – “For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost”. Key Words: Seek and save. Key Phrase: The Son of Man Key Thought: Behold the Man. Spiritual Thought: He is the Friend of sinners: 19:7 44

45 Luke: Jesus The Teacher The Scholars The School Entrance Requirement Examinations Rules to be observed A Practice School The Course 45

46 John The Book Of Christ The Son Of God 46

47 John John or Johanan means “grace, gift, or mercy of the Lord”. 3 Proofs Of Christ Deity – Chapter 2 1.His divine power – shown by the first of His many miracles: vs His divine authority – shown by His driving out the money changers from the Temple: vs His divine knowledge – as show by His first prediction of His death and resurrection: vs

48 John Subject: The conversations of Jesus. Purpose: To prove that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing on Him one might have eternal life through His name (20:31). When and Where Written: Sometime between A.D , in Ephesus. Key Chapter: 1. The presentation of Christ; the Word as flesh. 48

49 John Key Verse: 20:31 – “But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name”. Key Words: 1.God as Father, over 100 times 2.Believe, at least 98 times 3.Eternal life, 35 times 4.Witness, 21 times 5.Love, 20 times 49

50 John Key Phrase: He that believes: 3:18,36 Key Thought: That you might believe. Spiritual Thought: He is the only begotten Son of God: 3:16. 50

51 Miracles Peculiar to John a.Turning water into wine: 2:1-11 b.Healing the nobleman’s son: 4:46-54 c.Healing the impotent man at Bethesda: 5:1-9 d.Healing the man born blind: 9:1-9 e.Raising of Lazarus: 11:1-44 f.Draught of fish: 21:3-6 51

52 Three keys that unlock John’s Gospel Back door key: John 20:31 Side door key: John 16:28 Front door key: John 1:

53 Acts The Book Of Christian Action 53

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55 Acts Subject: What Jesus continues to do and teach by the Holy Spirit, through believers, since His ascension. Purpose: To give us God’s purpose, plan, and power for every believer during this dispensation of grace. 55

56 Acts: The Main Purpose 1.To present a history. 2.To give a defense. 3.Luke probably wrote this work as Paul awaited trial in Rome. 4.To provide a guide. 5.To depict the triumph of Christianity in the face of bitter persecution. 56

57 Acts: Themes The first of these themes is that of the universal, unhindered spread of the gospel. The second theme of Acts concerns the separation of Christianity from the Jews. 57

58 Acts Acts portrays Him as the ascended and exalted Lord and leader. No doubt Acts is the best guidebook to missions that has ever been written. Four words summarize the book of Acts: (1) Power; (2) Preaching; (3) Persecution; and (4) Progress. 58

59 Acts To Whom Written: Theophilus (1:1), but intended for all believers. When and Where Written: About A.D. 65, probably in Rome or in Achaia. Key Chapter: 2. The outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Key Verse: 1:8 – “But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth” (NKJV). 59

60 Acts Key Word: Witness Key Phrase: The promise of the Father: 1:4 with Luke 24:49 Key Thoughts: 1.We should obey God rather than man: 5:29 2.Let the redeemed of the Lord say so: 4:20 with Ps. 107:2 Spiritual Thought: Power…upon you: 1:8 60

61 Books Of The New Testament Division III The Epistles 61

62 Epistles Subject: The doctrine or teaching concerning what Jesus Christ has done, is doing, and will do for all believers during this age. Purpose: To give us the foundation for our faith for salvation, service, suffering, and our hope. Each group (division) gives us (1) doctrine, (2) reproof, and (3) correction. 62

63 Epistles Justification – a change of standing – before God Regeneration – a change of nature – from God 63

64 The Book Of Romans 64

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66 Romans Paul’s estimate of himself as a sinner and a saint are summed up in these words: 1.The chiefest of sinners: 1Tim. 1:15. 2.The least of the apostles, not deserving to be called an apostle: 1Cor. 15:9. 66

67 Romans Key Chapter: 3. All under sin. Key Phrase: The righteousness of God 1:17. Key Thought: Justification by faith without the deeds of the law: 3:28. Spiritual Thought: Come to God clothed in His righteousness. 67

68 Romans: Purpose 1.He wrote to prepare the way for his coming visit to Rome and his proposed mission to Spain (1:10-15; 15:22-29). 2.He wrote to present the basic system of salvation to a church that had not received the teaching of an apostle before. 3.He sought to explain the relationship between Jew and Gentile in God’s overall plan of redemption. The Jewish believers still felt constrained to observe dietary laws and sacred days. (14:2-6). 68

69 Romans: Four Special Terms 1.Justified is a legal term meaning to declare righteous. 2.Grace points to God’s free and unmerited favor by which God has without charge to believers declared them to have a right standing in His sight. 3.redemption means a price was paid. 4.Propitiation: Perhaps the idea of satisfaction best illuminates this Pauline concept for us. 69


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