Presentation on theme: "9.3 European Claims in Muslim Regions"— Presentation transcript:
1 9.3 European Claims in Muslim Regions Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government’s actions against Armenian citizens
2 Objective and Focus Question How did European nations extend their power into Muslim regions of the world?
3 I. Stresses in Muslim Regions By the 1700s, all of the Muslim empires in decline.Ottomans in Middle EastSafavids in IranMughals in IndiaCorruption were wide-spread.
4 II. Rise of Muslim Reform Movements In northern Africa, Usman dan Fodio led the struggle to reform Muslim practicesIn the Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad declared himself the Mahdi, a religious saviorIn Arabia, the Wahhabi wanted to recapture purity and simplicity of Islam’s original teachings
5 III. Problems for the Ottoman Empire Economic problemscorruptionEthnic revolts.
6 IV. European Pressure Increases As the Ottoman Empire crumbled, Russia seized the Dardanelles in order to gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.Britain tried to stop Russia
7 Question Check1. As the Ottoman empire crumbled, Russia plotted to seize the Bosporus and Dardanelles in order toa. build a Berlin-to-Baghdad railway.b. gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.c. build a canal through Egypt.d. gain control of the Red Sea.
9 V. Ottoman Efforts to Westernize 1. Young men were sent to the West to study, they Western political ideas about democracy and equality.2. The reforms brought improved medical care and revitalized farming3. Several of the sultans, or rulers, of the Ottoman Turkish Empire rejected the reforms because they threatened their power.
10 VI. Young Turks Demand Reform 1. In 1908, the Young Turks overthrew the sultan but were unable to achieve their reforms because of WWI in 1914.
11 VII. Armenian GenocideThe Muslim Turks accused Christian Armenians of supporting the Russian plans against the Ottoman empire.3. Over 25 years, between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed
12 VIII. Egypt Seeks to Modernize A. Muhammad Ali Introduces ReformsHe is sometimes called the “father of modern Egypt”2. He made economic and farming reforms3. Ali built a well-trained, modern army.
13 IX. Building the Suez Canal Ali successors were not as successfulLoans were taken out by Ali successors to build the Suez Canal.They were unable to pay back the loans and Britain eventually gained control of the canal.Egypt Became a British Protectorate
14 IV. Persia and the European Powers Persia (Iran) faced several challenges in the 1800s.It was an absolute monarchRussian and Britain took over their oil fieldsPersian nationalists were outraged and wanted them to leave