Presentation on theme: "The Church, society and the State in contemporary Russia."— Presentation transcript:
The Church, society and the State in contemporary Russia
1988-2012 2. A n excerpt from “The Naked King” (based on the philosophical fairy tale by Evgeny Shvarts): “Your Majesty, you know that I am an honest and direct old man. I say the truth directly and face-to-face, even if it's unpleasant. So let me tell it to you directly, rudely, like an old man...You are a great man! You, Your Majesty, are a giant, a luminary!” “The patriarch speaks the truth ” 1.Patriarch to V. Rutin: "I must say this completely openly, as the Patriarch, who is called upon to speak the truth: without regard to the current state of politics or propaganda aims, you, Vladimir Vladimirovich, have played an enormous role in correcting the distortions of our history. 2 parts http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OO 86GYpBAww
The Society Patriarch Kirill, the current head of the Russian Orthodox Church President Putin the invisible director the Church the State
A widespread campaign to seize Church valuables under the pretenses of fighting famine in the Volga region The decree “On the separation of Church and State.” January 23, 1918 1922 “the seizure of Church valuables, including the richest monasteries and churches, must be carried out with merciless determination, unequivocally stopping at nothing and as quickly as possible. The more representatives of the reactionary bourgeois and clergy that we are able to shoot on these grounds, the better.” Secret letter written to Politburo members. March 1922. The Kremlin Archives. In 2 vols. / Vol. 1. The Politburo and the Church. 1922–1925. – Мoscow-Novosibirsk, Siberian Chronographer, 1997 (p. 143). V.Lenin:
more than 200 000 clergymen were murdered. 1920s-30s Churchbells, Pilgrimages were forbidden. Churches and monasteries continued to be shut down Approximately 500 000 priests were thrown into prison or sent into exile.
the number of churches shrank by 30% the number of monasteries- by 60% 1960s-1962 the late 1960s - the early 1980s L. Brezhnev,the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union from 1964 till 1982
Patriarch Pimen and a few other prominent Church figures were awarded various State medals, “for active peacemaking and in connection with the 1000-year anniversary of the Baptism of Old Rus” 1988 the USSR celebrated the thousand-year anniversary of the baptism of Old Rus. А historic meeting between Patriarch Pimen and the permanent members of the Synod, and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev 1989 Patriarch Pimen was elected a deputy of the USSR parliament. 1989 Patriarch Pimen was elected a deputy of the USSR parliament. Perestroika June 3 April 29 M. Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU CC
Patriarch Alexii II (1929-2008) was a Меtropolitan of Novgorod and Leningrad. He was chosen on the basis of his administrative experience, and was considered "intelligent, energetic, hardworking, systematic, perceptive, and businesslike.” Alexei II was "the first patriarch in Soviet history to be chosen without government pressure; candidates were nominated from the floor, and the election was conducted by secret ballot.
Pilgrimages Church newspapers and magazines The Bible became accessible Priests allowed to visit schools, kindergartens, universities. Sunday schools and Orthodox gymnasiums. Charity А time of unheard-of freedom for the Church Tax breaks Restorations of old churches and monasteries, building of new ones. Chapel of St. Xenia of Petersburg in the Orthodox Smolensk Cemetery in Leningrad (St. Petersburg), USSR, July, 1988. The celebration of the Millennium of the Baptism of Russia.
Alexy, Metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod, the future Patriarch Alexy II at the entrance into the Orthodox Church of the Smolensk Icon of the Mother of God in the Orthodox Smolensk cemetery in Leningrad (St. Petersburg), USSR, July, 1988. The celebration of the Millennium of the Baptism of Russia. Artemy Vladimirov, the first priest at Moscow State University
2000s Everything is achieved? All of the churches are active, Orthodox magazines are published regularly, charity services toil away. The army and the Church are archaic institutions, and as such they can serve as a bastion of national values. Bullfighting in Moscow was canceled Neither the representatives of the Moscow Patriarchate ever say anything to Russian statesmen or authorities that might be considered offensive. Vladimir Putin The second President of Russia from 2000 to 2008, and Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012. “disenchurchment” (расцерковление).
the activist group Pussy Riot conducted a “punk prayer” in the Church of Christ the Savior. February 21, 2012 The participants ran up onto the ambon of the church wearing colorful masks, crossed themselves, kneeled, and attempted to sing the words of the song, but were nearly immediately taken away by guards. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCasuaAczKY
(choir) Virgin Mary, Mother of God, put Putin away Рut Putin away, put Putin away (end chorus)... Black robe, golden epaulettes All parishioners crawl to bow The phantom of liberty is in heaven Gay-pride sent to Siberia in chains The head of the KGB, their chief saint, Leads protesters to prison under escort In order not to offend His Holiness Women must give birth and love Shit, shit, the Lord's shit! (Chorus) Virgin Mary, Mother of God, become a feminist Become a feminist, become a feminist (end chorus) The Church’s praise of rotten dictators The cross-bearer procession of black limousines A teacher-preacher will meet you at school Go to class - bring him money! Patriarch Gundyaev believes in Putin Bitch, better believe in God instead The belt of the Virgin can’t replace mass- meetings Mary, Mother of God, is with us in protest! (Chorus) Virgin Mary, Mother of God, put Putin away Рut Putin away, put Putin away (end chorus) Punk-Prayer "Virgin Mary, Put Putin Away"
March 3 Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, Maria Alyokhina were arrested and charged with hooliganism. Hunger strikes. Ekaterina Samutsevich. March 3 Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, Maria Alyokhina were arrested and charged with hooliganism. Hunger strikes. Ekaterina Samutsevich. March 18 The letter to the state prosecutor March 18 The letter to the state prosecutor March 22 the website Rosbalt published a statement against Patriarch Kirill: the Patriarch, who owns an elite apartment in the center of Moscow, was suing his neighbor for dousing the apartment with dust, apparently causing 20 million rubles (0.5 million Euro ) worth of damage. March 22 the website Rosbalt published a statement against Patriarch Kirill: the Patriarch, who owns an elite apartment in the center of Moscow, was suing his neighbor for dousing the apartment with dust, apparently causing 20 million rubles (0.5 million Euro ) worth of damage.
April 22 The prayer meeting with 65 000 of the faithful in attendance April 22 The prayer meeting with 65 000 of the faithful in attendance Patriarch Kirill stated his position on the group's performance: their action to have been “a mockery before sacred objects.” April 3 Patriarch Kirill declared that an information war had been launched against the Church. Subsequently many other representatives of the clergy began saying that the Church was again facing a period of persecution. April 3 Patriarch Kirill declared that an information war had been launched against the Church. Subsequently many other representatives of the clergy began saying that the Church was again facing a period of persecution. March 24 Patriarch's disappearing Breguet watch the idea of a church under fire could unify the divided faithful
The punk-group's actions should fall under the article about «mockery of religious beliefs»,-the criminal code did not contain such an article. August Ekaterina Samutsevich was given a suspended 2- year sentence and was released from custody in the courtroom. Moscow's Khamovniki court convicted Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova to 2 years of imprisonment for hooliganism
2009-2012 70% of the Russian population identifies as Orthodox Christian 5% of the population attends church regularly 8% attend church twice a year – at Christmas and on Easter 1991 31% of the Russian population identifies as Orthodox Christian 1% attends church regulary
April 12 and 13, 2013 The Levada Center conducted a poll of 1601 Russians. The questions: 1. “Have you heard of the ‘punk prayer’ ‘Mother of God, drive out Putin’ performed by the group Pussy Riot in Moscow’s Church of Christ the Savior, just before last year’s presidential elections, and of the criminal prosecution of members of the group?” April 12April 13 I have been following these events closely 106 I've heard a lot about it4154 I've heard something about it, but am not sure what it's all about 2223 I am hearing about this for the first time 2718
2. “Do you think that the two-year prison sentence handed down to Pussy Riot participants for the “concert” in the Church of Christ the Savior is an appropriate or excessive punishment for their actions? Apr.13 appropriate punishment56 excessive punishment26 this kind of activity should not be subject to criminal proceedings 9 no answer9
Society in Russia as a fantom «What do the herds need freedom for? They should be slaughtered and fleeced!» «К чему стадам дары свободы? Их нужно резать или стричь!» A. Pushkin