2ObjectivesDefine oasis and explain its importance. Why did towns develop near them?Contrast the lifestyles of nomads and townspeople in early Arabia.Give the key Islamic beliefs about God.Explain how Islamic people believe that Muhammad got his ideas.Explain why Muhammad’s time in Medina was important to the growth of Islam.Identify the Arabian Peninsula on a blank map.
3Oasis is a place in the desert where water is. Terms and PeopleOasis is a place in the desert where water is.Caravan is a group of traders traveling together.Muhammad was the founder of the religion of Islam.Qu’an or Koran is the book sacred to Muslims.
4Pilgrimage is a trip taken for religious reasons. Terms and PeoplePilgrimage is a trip taken for religious reasons.Mosque is a building of worship for Muslims.Kaaba is the most sacred site for Muslims, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
5After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe entered the Dark Ages. There was no central authority, and even smaller kings spent their time raiding each other.
6Meanwhile, something was going on out in the Arabian Peninsula. Most nomadic people live in the Najd. Most of the townspeople live along the Red Sea.The Nefud is a stony desert to the northThe “Empty Quarter” is a desert of sand in the south. It contains some of the deepest sand in the world, sometimes 600 feet deep.The Najd is a plateau that offers some grazing.
7Two types of lifestyles existed here. NomadsTownsfolkTwo types of lifestyles existed here.Nomads are people that constantly travel. Some are herders, looking for new pastures for their animals. Others may be merchants carrying goods in a caravan.Townsfolk may live as merchants, artisans, or laborers.The towns had places called bazaars, where goods were sold.Nomads were part of a tribe. The tribe gave them a sense of identity and some protection.
8An oasis is a place in the desert where water comes to the surface. Knowing the location of the next oasis is vital to crossing the desert alive.
9Most of the people of this area were polytheistic and worshipped idols Most of the people of this area were polytheistic and worshipped idols. Many of them worshipped the Moon God.In 610 AD, in the city of Mecca, Mohammed announced that God had told him they must worship only one God and destroy their idols.The people didn’t like his message, and he fled north to the city of Medina.
10In Medina, Mohammed united the Medina tribes, raided caravans, and raised an army.
11Two years later, Mohammed returned to Mecca with a sizable force and took the city. Mohammed and his followers destroyed the idols of that city.
12Mohammed and his followers then conquered the Najd plateau and Red Sea Coast areas of Arabia.
13Wherever he went, he destroyed the idols of Allat, the Moon Goddess. He also did not destroy the black stone that the pagans had worshipped.Some people believe that it is a meteorite.He kept, however, the crescent shape. It became the symbol of Islam.Other early cults worshipped meteorites, like this one.
14A close-up photograph shows the stone mounted in silver Today, the black stone is in a temple in Mecca called the Kaaba.The Kaaba is Islam’s most sacred site, but it is far older than Islam.
15Mohammed died on Monday, 8 June 632, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63, in the house of his wife Aisha.It is said that one of Mohammed’s followers, Abu Bakr, began to write down Mohammed’s teachings. His writings are called the Qu’ran or Koran.
17Allah said, ‘No Prophet before Muhammad took booty from his enemy nor prisoners for ransom.’ Muhammad said, ‘I was made victorious with terror. The earth was made a place for me to clean. I was given the most powerful words. Booty was made lawful for me. I was given the power to intercede. These five privileges were awarded to no prophet before me.’” — Ishaq:326the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy. 4:101