2Archie William League, widely acknowledged as the first U. S Archie William League, widely acknowledged as the first U.S. air traffic controller, was born in 1907 at Poplar Bluff, Missouri. He passed away on October 1, 1986 at the age of 79 in Annandale, Virginia. League retired from the F.A.A. in 1973, as the Assistant Administrator for Appraisal, with his claim to the first air traffic controller largely unchallenged. Air Traffic Control: Keeping Track of FlightsBy the end of the first decade of powered flight, people began to realize that aircraft, like automobiles, would crash into each other unless some means was developed to control and direct them. At first, because aircraft could not fly very high, such control was accomplished using simple hand signals. Later, control was exercised through radio communication. By the end of World War II, the invention of radar permitted visually displayed tracking of several aircraft at once. When coupled with radio communication, radar made it possible for the pilot to be warned when he was in danger of colliding with another aircraft or when he was off course. In 1956, two aircraft crashed over the Grand Canyon while one was climbing and the other descending. The resulting public outcry spurred the development of the modern radar-based air traffic control system. Today, aircraft are continually tracked from take-off to landing
3First FlightOn December 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright capped four years of research and design efforts with a 120-foot, 12-second flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina - the first powered flight in a heavier-than-air machine. Prior to that, people had flown only in balloons and gliders.The first person to fly as a passenger was Leon Delagrange, who rode with French pilot Henri Farman from a meadow outside of Paris in Charles Furnas became the first American airplane passenger when he flew with Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk later that year. World War IThese and other early flights were headline events, but commercial aviation was very slow to catch on with the general public, most of which was afraid to ride in the new flying machines. Improvements in aircraft design also were slow. However, with the advent of World War I, the military value of aircraft was quickly recognized and production increased significantly to meet the soaring demand for planes from governments on both sides of the Atlantic. Most significant was the development of more powerful motors, enabling aircraft to reach speeds of up to 130 mph, more than twice the speed of pre-war aircraft. Increased power also made bigger aircraft possible.
4AirmailBy 1917, the U.S. government felt it had seen enough progress in the development of planes to warrant something totally new - air mail. That year, Congress appropriated $100,000 for an experimental airmail service that was to be conducted jointly by the Army and the Post Office between Washington and New York, with an intermediate stop in Philadelphia. The first flight left Belmont Park, Long Island, for Philadelphia on May 14, 1918, and the next day continued on to Washington where it was met by President Woodrow Wilson. BeaconsIn 1921, the Army deployed rotating beacons in a line between Columbus and Dayton, Ohio, a distance of about 80 miles. The beacons, visible to pilots at 10-second intervals, made it possible to fly the route at night.The Post Office took over the operation of the guidance system the following year, and by the end of 1923 constructed similar beacons between Chicago and Cheyenne, WY, a line later extended coast-to-coast at a cost of $550,000. Mail then could be delivered across the continent in as little as 29 hours eastbound and 34 hours westbound (prevailing winds from west to east accounted for the difference), which was two to three days less than it took by train.
5Aircraft InnovationsFor the airlines to attract more passengers away from the railroads, they needed both larger and faster airplanes. They also needed safer airplanes. Accidents such as the one in 1931 that killed Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne and six other men kept people away from flying in droves.Aircraft manufacturers responded to the challenge. There were so many improvements to aircraft in the 1930s that many believe it was the most innovative period in aviation history. Air-cooled engines replaced water-cooled engines, reducing weight and making bigger and faster planes possible. Cockpit instruments also improved, with better turn indicators, altimeters, airspeed indicators, rate of climb indicators, compasses, and the "artificial horizon," which showed pilots the attitude of the aircraft relative to the ground - important for flying in reduced visibility.
6RadioAnother development of enormous importance to aviation was radio. Aviation and radio developed almost in lock step. Marconi sent his first message across the Atlantic on the airways just two years before the Wright Brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk. By World War I, some pilots were taking radios up in the air with them so they could communicate with people on the ground. The airlines followed suit after the war, using radio to transmit weather information from the ground to their pilots so they could avoid storms.Perhaps an even bigger development, however, was the realization that radio could be used as an aid to navigation when visibility was poor and visual navigation aids such as beacons were useless. Once technical bugs were worked out, the Department of Commerce constructed 83 radio beacons across the country. They became fully operational in 1932, automatically transmitting directional beams, or tracks, that pilots could follow to their destination. Marker beacons came next, allowing pilots to locate airports in poor visibility. The first air traffic control tower was established in 1935 at Newark International Airport in New Jersey.
7The DC-3Called the plane that changed the world, the DC-3 was the first aircraft to enable airlines to make money carrying passengers. As a result, it quickly became the dominant aircraft in the United States following its debut in 1936 with American Airlines (which played a key role in its design).The DC-3 had 50% greater passenger capacity than the DC-2 (21 seats versus 14), yet cost only 10% more to operate. It also was considered a safer plane, built of an aluminum alloy 25% stronger than materials previously used in aircraft construction. It has more powerful engines (1,000 horsepower versus 710 horsepower for the DC-2), and it could travel coast to coast in 16 hours - a fast trip for that time.
8Pressurized CabinsAlthough planes such as the Boeing 247 and the DC-3 represented significant advances in aircraft design, they had a major drawback. They could fly no higher than 10,000 feet because people became dizzy and even fainted due to the reduced levels of oxygen at higher altitudes.The airlines wanted to fly higher to get above the air turbulence and storms common at lower altitudes. Motion sickness was a problem for many airline passengers, and an inhibiting factor to the industry's growth.The breakthrough came at Boeing with the Stratoliner, a derivation of the B-17 bomber introduced in 1940 and first flown by TWA. It was the first pressurized aircraft, meaning that air was pumped into the aircraft as it gained altitude to maintain an atmosphere inside the cabin similar to the atmosphere that occurs naturally at lower altitudes. With its regulated air compressor, the 33-seat Stratoliner could fly as high as 20,000 feet and reach speeds of 200 miles per hour.
9World War IIAviation had an enormous impact on the course of World War II and the war had just as big of an impact on aviation. There were fewer than 300 air transports in the United States when Hitler marched into Poland in By the end of the war, U.S. aircraft manufacturers were producing 50,000 planes a year!Most of the planes, of course, were fighters and bombers, but the importance of air transports to the war effort quickly became apparent as well. Throughout the war, the airlines provided much needed airlift to keep people and supplies moving to the front and throughout the production chain back home. For the first time in their history, the airlines had far more business - for passengers as well as freight - than they could handle. Many of them also had opportunities to pioneer new routes, gaining an exposure that would give them a decidedly broader outlook at war's end.While there were numerous advances in U.S. aircraft design during the war that enabled planes to go faster, higher, and further than ever before, mass production was the chief goal of the United States. The major innovations of the wartime period - radar and jet engines - occurred in Europe.
10RadarA technological development with a much greater impact on the war's outcome (and later on commercial aviation) was radar. British scientists had been working on a device that could give them early warning of approaching enemy aircraft even before the war began, and by 1940 Britain had a line of radar transceivers along its east coast that could detect German aircraft the moment they took off from the Continent.British scientists also perfected the cathode ray oscilloscope, which produced map-type outlines of surrounding countryside and showed aircraft as a pulsing light. Americans, meanwhile, found a way to distinguish between enemy aircraft and Allied aircraft by installing transponders aboard the later that signaled their identity to radar operators.
11The present Air Navigation System (ANS) provides international Air Traffic Services (ATS) for civil aviation. The provision of these services is based on the availability of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance (CNS) systems and automated Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems with various levels of capabilities.International air traffic is channelled along specified air routes and each air route is part of a network ofgenerally fixed air routes within a Flight Information Region (FIR)
12Air Traffic Services (ATS) ATS= Air Traffic Management + Flight Information Service + Alerting ServiceATM= Air Traffic Control + Air Space Management + Air Traffic Flow Management· ATC: Maintain a safe distance between aircraft and obstacles within a confined airspace and alsoon the airport surface· ASM: Maximize, within a given airspace structure, the utilization of available airspace bydynamic time sharing and segregation of airspace among competing categories of users basedon short-term needs· ATFM: ensure an optimum flow of air traffic through areas during times when demands (is expected to) exceed the available capacity of ATC service· FIS: Collect, handle and disseminate flight-related information to assist the pilot to conduct his flight in a safe and efficient manner (ex ATIS)· AL: initiate an early search and rescue activity for aircraft in distressATIS A service of an airport for traffic in its TMA or CTRATIS is a repeated message (VHF) containing information about· Weather
13ATIS A service of an airport for traffic in its TMA or CTR ATIS is a repeated message (VHF) containing information about weather· The QNH· Transition level, transition altitude· Operational issues
14Airspace Organisation · Control zone (CTR): local ATC (TWR) usually circular area around airport· Terminal Control Area (TMA): local ATC (APP), incoming and outgoing flights between CTR andCTA· Control Area (CTA): General ATC (ACC) within FIR, below certain flight level (lower airspace)· Upper Control Area (UTA): General ATC, across FIRs (upper airspace; ex Eurocontrol)
15SIDs and STARsStandard Instrumental DepartureDefines the route flown between aircraft departure and an ATS route (‘highway in the sky’) (connects CTR with CTA, through TMA)Standard Terminal Arrival RouteDefines the route flown between an ATS route and an approach fix (Connects CTA with CTR through TMA)ACAS Airborne Collision Avoidance SystemFANS: Future Air Navigation SystemCurrent operating ANS is not expected to be able to accommodate foreseen growth in air traffic (in 2008) Shortcomings of existing CNS and ATS will become more apparent over timeSummary of general shortcomingsLack of real time informationShort and long term intent of aircraft on certain parts of existing air-routesProcedurals of ATC do not provide most efficient flight profiles Planned through intermediate waypoints Capabilities of modern airborne systems cannot be fully exploited
16· Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS + GLONASS + GALILEO Communication· SSR mode S regional VHF data link (VDL) regional Satellite data link (AMSS)Global Navigation· Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS + GLONASS + GALILEOSurveillance· SSR mode S regional· Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) global· Airborne Separation Avoidance System (ASAS) globalADSAn on-board avionics function that automatically transmits via a digital data link real time surveillance information allows surveillance in oceanic and other areas which are beyond coverage of radar or LOS communication · Surveillance is dependent in ADS because its operation and quality depend upon the performance of the aircraft’s navigation system.
17Data blocksBasic· Time of day· Aircraft identification· Three dimensional positionAdditional can include· Aircraft velocity and heading (4D)· Aircraft intent (waypoints stored in FMS)· Meteorological dataADS-B· Each ADS-B equipped aircraft periodically broadcasts its position, altitude and vector information· Any user could receive and process the information· Everyone in the system would have real time access to precisely the same data
18The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers (data provided by Airports Council International). One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day. Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta has been the world's busiest airport every year since 2000, although with all airports combined London has the world's busiest city airport system in terms of passenger traffic. [hide] 1.1-Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International AirportAtlanta, Georgia, United StatesATL/KATL Passenger - 92,365,8602-Beijing Capital International Airport Chaoyang, Beijing, ChinaPEK/ZBAA77,403,668London Heathrow Airport Hillingdon, London, United KingdomLHR/EGLL-69,433,565