Switzerland borders on north to Germania, on west to France, on south to Italy, on east to Austria and Liechtenstein.
Area: 41285 kmq Population: 7400000 inhabitants Density: 234 inhabitants/kmq Form of government: Federal republic with direct democracy. Capital: Berna. National party: 1° August. Straight of vote and eligibility: all the Swiss citizens that have turned 18 years old.
In Switzerland live 1/1000 of the population of all the world. 1.5 millions (20%) of the switzerlands (7.3 millions) are foreigners.The Switzerland has an high demographic concentration ( 183 populalions km2). The allocation of the population is very varied, in the Alps live only 10% of the all population. The birth rate, in Switzerland, is 1,3 children for woman. The rate of the old generation is increasing ( 15,4% the all people is over 65 ). The average expectation of life for the womans is 83 years, for the men is 78 years.
The climate depends from the altitude, the disposition and the distance from the sea.The medium temperature in January is about -2°C, meanwhile in July is about 20°C.
Climate: temperate - alpine Lake: lake of Ginevra, lake of Neuchatel, lake of Costanza, lake of four Cantoni Mountains: Pink mountain 4634 m, Dom 4.545 m, Weisshorn 4.505 m, Cervino 4478 m Rivers: Reno 375 Km, Rodano 264 Km.
Switzerland is divided in 26 Cantons. Each Canton has its own Constitution, its own governement, parliament and laws. Each canton has a large autonomy. Some Cantons are practically formed from only one city as the Canton Ginevra, in others there are only valleys and mountains, as in the Canton Uri. The dimensions and the density of the population vary enormously according to the Cantons.
The geographic position of Switzerland have had a fundamental role in its history. From the man of the caverns to the Roman. In the preistoria the populations are settled down in lacustrine takeovers on stilt houses. The Roman constructs the first cities and carries the Latin language. From the Alemanni to Sacred Roman Empire The Germanic populations takes one new language and the Christianity consolidates. The Middle Age The Switzerland Confederation begin to grow up. The reform. Extending of the protestant religion leads to the war.
XVII century. We have the Swiss independence after the war of the thirty years. After the war Catholics and protestants fight themselves in the two wars of Villmergen. XVIII century. French occupation and creation of the Helvetic Republic under Napoleone. The Federal State. We have the Federal State in 1848. The industry, the commerce and agriculture are developed, but many Swisses emigrate. XX century Switzerland remains neutral during the First and the Second World war, and subsequently it enters to make part of the main international organizations.
The industry, the commerce and the tourism are very important for the Switzerland’s economy. The Switzerland is famous all over the world for the clocks, the chocolate and pharmaceutical products. The geographical position and the good communication with the near countries have favoured the development of a great economy.
The Zernerz national park, with its area of 169 kmq, is the only national park in Switzerland.The park is on the Alpes and it’s famous for the richness of the fauna and the alpine flora in a natural landscape. In July and August the snow go away and you can see the nobil deer, the marmots, the chamois and the real eagle.