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1 Information complexity and exact communication bounds April 26, 2013 Mark Braverman Princeton University Based on joint work with Ankit Garg, Denis Pankratov, and Omri Weinstein

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Overview: information complexity Information complexity :: communication complexity as Shannon’s entropy :: transmission cost 2

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Background – information theory Shannon (1948) introduced information theory as a tool for studying the communication cost of transmission tasks. 3 communication channel Alice Bob

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Shannon’s entropy 4 communication channel X

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Shannon’s noiseless coding 5

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Shannon’s entropy – cont’d communication channel X Y

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A simple example 7 Easy and complete!

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Communication complexity [Yao] Focus on the two party randomized setting. 8 A B X Y F(X,Y) Meanwhile, in a galaxy far far away… Shared randomness R

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Communication complexity A B X Y F(X,Y) m 1 (X,R) m 2 (Y,m 1,R) m 3 (X,m 1,m 2,R) Communication cost = #of bits exchanged. Shared randomness R

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Communication complexity Numerous applications/potential applications (streaming, data structures, circuits lower bounds…) Considerably more difficult to obtain lower bounds than transmission (still much easier than other models of computation). Many lower-bound techniques exists. Exact bounds?? 10

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Communication complexity 11

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Set disjointness and intersection

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Information complexity 13

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Basic definition 1: The information cost of a protocol A B X Y Protocol π what Alice learns about Y + what Bob learns about X

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Mutual information 15 H(A) H(B) I(A,B)

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Basic definition 1: The information cost of a protocol A B X Y Protocol π what Alice learns about Y + what Bob learns about X

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Example A B X Y what Alice learns about Y + what Bob learns about X MD5(X) [128 bits] X=Y? [1 bit]

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Information complexity 18

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Prior-free information complexity 19

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Connection to privacy 20

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Information equals amortized communication 21

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Without priors 22

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Intersection 23

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The two-bit AND 24

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The optimal protocol for AND A B X {0,1} Y {0,1} If X=1, A=1 If X=0, A=U [0,1] If Y=1, B=1 If Y=0, B=U [0,1] 0 1 “Raise your hand when your number is reached”

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The optimal protocol for AND A B If X=1, A=1 If X=0, A=U [0,1] If Y=1, B=1 If Y=0, B=U [0,1] 0 1 “Raise your hand when your number is reached” X {0,1} Y {0,1}

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Analysis 27

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The analytical view A message is just a mapping from the current prior to a distribution of posteriors (new priors). Ex: 28 Y=0Y=1 X=00.40.2 X=10.30.1 Y=0Y=1 X=02/31/3 X=100 Y=0Y=1 X=000 X=10.750.25 Alice sends her bit “0”: 0.6 “1”: 0.4

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The analytical view 29 Y=0Y=1 X=00.40.2 X=10.30.1 Y=0Y=1 X=00.5450.273 X=10.1360.045 Y=0Y=1 X=02/91/9 X=11/21/6 Alice sends her bit w.p ½ and unif. random bit w.p ½. “0”: 0.55 “1”: 0.45

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Analytical view – cont’d 30

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IC of AND 31

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*Not a real protocol 32

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Previous numerical evidence [Ma,Ishwar’09] – numerical calculation results. 33

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Applications: communication complexity of intersection 34

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Applications 2: set disjointness 35

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A hard distribution? 36 001101000100111101100 101001110011101011000 Y=0Y=1 X=01/4 X=11/4 Very easy!

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A hard distribution 37 000101000100110101100 101000110011100010000 Y=0Y=1 X=01/3 X=11/3 At most one (1,1) location!

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Communication complexity of Disjointness 38

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Small-set Disjointness 39

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Using information complexity Y=0Y=1 X=01-2k/nk/n X=1k/n

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Overview: information complexity Information complexity :: communication complexity as Shannon’s entropy :: transmission cost Today: focused on exact bounds using IC. 41

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Selected open problems 1

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Interactive compression? 43

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Interactive compression? 44

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Selected open problems 2 45

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External information cost A B X Y Protocol π C

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External information complexity 47

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48 Thank You!

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