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1. ___ Medicaid 2. ___ Great Society 3. ___ Elementary and Secondary Education Act 4. ___ Volunteers in Service to America (AmeriCorps) 5. ___ Medicare.

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Presentation on theme: "1. ___ Medicaid 2. ___ Great Society 3. ___ Elementary and Secondary Education Act 4. ___ Volunteers in Service to America (AmeriCorps) 5. ___ Medicare."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. ___ Medicaid 2. ___ Great Society 3. ___ Elementary and Secondary Education Act 4. ___ Volunteers in Service to America (AmeriCorps) 5. ___ Medicare 6. ___ War on Poverty 7. ___ Corporation for Public Broadcasting a. National health insurance program for people over age 65 b. Like a 2 nd New Deal c. Provided $1.3 billion to schools in poor areas d. Free health care for the needy e. A domestic version of the Peace Corps f. Produced educational television programming g. Johnson’s plan to help the poor of America h. Large # of reforms to improve America

2  Show me you understand these events (e.g. what happened when and where, their impact/effects, if and how they’re connected, etc.): ◦ Brown v. Board of Education ◦ Montgomery Bus Boycott ◦ Little Rock Nine  Complete a draft for Tuesday Use the Twitter OR Facebook format to do the following

3 1. T/F: Brown v. Board made all segregation illegal in America. 2. How were the Little Rock Nine like Jackie Robinson? 3. What is a boycott? Why did African Americans boycott the bus company in Montgomery, Alabama? How did it end? Warm-up: Discuss answers. Use notes.

4  What are some ways to create change when most of the people around you want things to stay the same?  When you’re finished, write the following in your notes section: Unit: The 1960s LT 2: Civil Rights Nonviolent Resistance Jot down ideas

5 Take any notes that will help you to meet this objective

6 Today’s episode: “Standing Up for Your Rights May Not Require Standing Up at All” LT 2: Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

7 Year# of People% of Population million 11.6% million 10.7% million 9.9% million 9.7% million 9.8% million 10.0% million 10.5% million 11.1% million 11.7% million 12.1% million 12.3% million12.4%

8  Unemployment rate ◦ Whites: 4.8% ◦ Nonwhites: 12.1% (2.5x higher)  Living below the poverty line (gov’t estimate) ◦ Whites: 20% ◦ Blacks: 50%

9  Protest strategy involving peaceful demonstrations and no violence  Goal: get sympathy of whites (how?) Nonviolent (or passive) resistance: passive is the opposite of active

10 1. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) ◦ MLK Jr.’s group 2. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) ◦ Group of Southern student activists (people who act to support a cause) ◦ Organize sit-ins 3. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) ◦ Northern civil rights group ◦ Organize Freedom Rides

11 Would you be able to do what they did?

12  “Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is both impractical (unrealistic) and immoral (morally wrong). It is impractical because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all. It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather than win his understanding; it seeks to annihilate rather than to convert. Violence is immoral because it thrives on hatred rather than love.”—MLK, Jr. If you were in the position of African Americans in the 1960s, would you buy this? Why nonviolence? King explains

13  Could you use nonviolent resistance? Do you agree with the message behind it? ◦ Keep in mind the things you’d be facing in the South as well as the goal of nonviolent resistance Discuss

14 What do you think a sit-in is? Can you think of a fairly recent example of a nationwide sit-in?

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16  Non-violent protest strategy involving sitting in an area and refusing to leave in order to create change  Mostly run by students (SNCC)  Effective - lead to desegregation of many restaurants

17 1. “Don’t strike back if cursed or abused. 2. Don’t laugh out. 3. Don’t hold conversations with your fellow workers. 4. Don’t leave your seats until your leader has given you instructions to do so. 5. Don’t block entrances to the stores and the aisles. 6. Show yourself courteous and friendly at all times. 7. Sit straight and always face the counter. 8. Report all serious incidents to your leader. 9. Refer all information to your leader in a polite manner. 10. Remember love and nonviolence.”

18 Today’s episode: Taking the Initiative LT 2: Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

19 1. T/F: The Montgomery Bus Boycott helped reduce the fear of standing up to those in power. 2. What is nonviolent resistance? What is its goal and how is it supposed to achieve that goal? 3. What do the SCLC, SNCC, and CORE, each stand for and what do they have in common? 4. What is a sit-in? Warm-up: discuss using notes if necessary

20 1. “Don’t strike back if cursed or abused. 2. Don’t laugh out. 3. Don’t hold conversations with your fellow workers. 4. Don’t leave your seats until your leader has given you instructions to do so. 5. Don’t block entrances to the stores and the aisles. 6. Show yourself courteous and friendly at all times. 7. Sit straight and always face the counter. 8. Report all serious incidents to your leader. 9. Refer all information to your leader in a polite manner. 10. Remember love and nonviolence.”

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23  Bob Moses, an African American, on seeing a photo in the newspaper of the Greensboro sit-in: ◦ “The students in that picture had a certain look on their faces, sort of sullen, angry, determined. Before, the Negro in the South had always looked on the defensive, cringing. This time they were taking the initiative. They were kids my age, and I knew this had something to do with my own life.” The effect of the sit-ins

24  W/in two weeks, sit-ins spread to 15 cities in 5 southern states  W/in 12 months, over 50,000 people participate in protests in 100 cities

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26 Lost and FoundLost and Found (6:12)

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28 Down the aisle

29 Today’s episode: Violence=Progress LT 2: Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

30 1. What was the goal of nonviolent or passive resistance? 2. What is a sit-in? 3. What happened at a Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC, and what was the effect? Warm-up: discuss with the person closest to you

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32  Background info ◦ December 1960: Supreme Court rules that segregation in places serving interstate travelers (people traveling between states), e.g. bus stations, is illegal  Freedom Riders: groups of blacks and whites who go on bus trips through South to draw attention to violations of the Supreme Court’s decision

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35 Notes: What happens in Birmingham and Mississippi? American Experience: Freedom Riders American Experience: Freedom Riders

36 Today’s episode: Violence=Progress LT 2: Civil and Constitutional Rights

37 1. T/F: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, sit-ins, and freedom rides, are all examples of effective nonviolent resistance. 2. What is the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Woolworth sit-in? In other words, what impact do they have on the civil rights movement? 3. What are the freedom rides? What’s the point? What happens when the riders get to Birmingham, Alabama? Warm-up: discuss

38 Notes: What happens in Birmingham and Mississippi? American Experience: Freedom Riders American Experience: Freedom Riders

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43  Effect:  Bus desegregation is finally enforced  Success inspires many to actively participate in civil rights movement “Black folks always lived in fear of white folks. And now they’re seeing young people defying white people. And so we helped to get rid of that impotence.” Freedom Rides

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45 1. Police respond nonviolently by jailing all protesters 2. Lack of violence means no news coverage 3. Protest fails Failed Protest in Albany, Georgia, 1961 “Protest becomes an effective tactic to the degree that it [brings forth] brutality and oppression from the power structure.” —Bayard Rustin, civil rights activist If this is true, then what should the activists do?

46 Into the lion’s den… “The worst city for race in the whole United States”

47 “As for [police chief] Bull Connor and the City of Birmingham, it was true that they constituted the hardest and most mean-spirited establishment in the South. Yet if we beat them on their own home grounds, we might be able to prove to the entire region that it was useless to resist desegregation, that its time had finally come. To win in Birmingham might well be to win in the rest of the nation. So in the long run the gamble [of confronting violence in Birmingham] might actually save time and lives in our struggle for equality.” —Ralph Abernathy, civil rights activist Why go to Birmingham?

48  As weeks go by, number of protesters declines  To save the protest, leaders suggest using schoolchildren ◦ “A boy from high school, he can get the same effect in terms of being in jail, in terms of putting pressure on the city, as his father—and yet there is no economic threat on the family because the father is still on the job.” —James Bevel, civil rights activist Birmingham protest April-May 1963

49 Birmingham 1963

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53 May 2: “Children’s March” -more than 1,000 youths march, police arrest ~600 May 3: protests continue; police chief orders attack using dogs, fire hoses, nightsticks Public support increases when images appear in the news June 11: JFK asks Congress to pass law ending ALL segregation Success in Birmingham, 1963

54 “One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs, their grandsons, are not fully free…. Are we to say…that this is the land of the free, except for Negroes, that we have no second-class citizens, except Negroes…? Now the time has come for the nation to fulfill its promise… Those who do nothing are inviting shame as well as violence. Those who act boldly are recognizing right as well as reality…” —JFK, announcing that he will be proposing a civil rights law to Congress

55 1:45:25

56 Protesters were arrested ALBANY protest Police don’t use violence. Protest fails. BIRMINGHAM protest Police use violence, protesters gain support. Protest succeeds. Lesson of the Albany and Birmingham protests: Lesson of the Albany and Birmingham protests: Civil rights progress only happens when peaceful protests are met with violence

57 The exchange student The exchange student (4:57)

58 Today’s episode: Toilet Paper and Newspaper Margins LT 2: Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

59 1. What impact does the Montgomery Bus Boycott, sit-ins, and freedom rides, have on the civil rights movement? 2. Explain how the civil rights movement shifts from activism in the courts to activism in the streets 3. Explain “violence = progress” and connect the Children’s March to JFK Warm-up: discuss

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