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SECTION C—International Issues STUDY THEME 3B: THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 4_Social Issues, improvements and impact.

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Presentation on theme: "SECTION C—International Issues STUDY THEME 3B: THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 4_Social Issues, improvements and impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECTION C—International Issues STUDY THEME 3B: THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 4_Social Issues, improvements and impact

2 The topic Chinese Hukou is going to be your specialist subject. You have 10 minutes to study up. Mastermind CONNECT

3 Learning Intentions: Understand the social impact of the Hukou Education in china, improvements and limitations Health, improvements and limitations Housing, improvements and limitations Crime, improvements and limitations

4 Education “Nine-hour tests and lots of pressure: welcome to the Chinese school system”

5 For primary school pupils in China classes might finish at 3.45pm by their day is just beginning – they could have an hour of homework, lessons in ping pong, swimming, art, calligraphy and piano. Many Chinese mothers, consider academic performance her top priority but appreciate the importance of a well-rounded education. "I've seen British curricular materials, and I'm actually kind of jealous," she said. "British teachers guide students to discover things on their own – they don't just feed them the answers, like in China.“China In recent weeks British parents and educators have been in a panic about the discrepancy between the Chinese education system and the UK's. In December the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) released the 2012 results for its triennial Programme for International Student Assessment (Pisa) test – a reading, maths and science examination administered to half a million 15- year-olds in 65 countries. Shanghai students topped the rankings; the UK ranked 26th. According to an analysis of the rankings, the children of Shanghai's cleaners and caterers are three years more advanced than UK lawyers' and doctors' children in maths. Yet the figures are an unreliable measure of equality. Although Shanghai's 23 million people make up less than 2% of China's population, its per capita GDP is more than double the national average; its college enrolment rate is four times as high. Furthermore, nearly half of Shanghai's school-age children belong to migrant families and were effectively barred from taking the test: because of China's residence registration system, these students are forced to attend high school in their home provinces, where schools are often debilitatingly understaffed. Although students from 12 provinces took the test in 2009, the government only shared Shanghai's scores. How might inequality skew the results?

6 Impact of Hukou on families and Individuals The boys, who were found dead in the south-western province of Guizhou, were killed by carbon monoxide poisoning, apparently after lighting charcoal in an attempt to stay warm overnight. The children, aged nine to 13, were cousins. Four were supposed to be under the care of an ageing, blind grandmother because their fathers were working as scrap collectors in Shenzhen, hundreds of miles away. All five had skipped school repeatedly. Tao Yuanwu, father of two of the victims, said the children refused to return to classes, saying they were getting poor grades and disliked studying. Studies have shown that children left behind by migrant worker parents are more likely to suffer educational and behavioural problems. But parents say they have little choice owing to long working hours and the hukou, or household registration system, which restricts the rights of migrant families to services such as education in cities. There were 58 million left-behind children in China.hukou Explain in your own words what impact the Hukou has on education.

7 Change & Impact in Education The progress to date has been tremendous, with nine-year basic education universalised, mass higher education attained, and youth and adult illiteracy eradicated. As in other sectors, the rapid development of education over the past three decades has led in many cases to severe inequalities both within provinces and across provinces. The equality reform involves several strategies for dealing with this problem, among which are the following: 1)Support hard-to-reach or disadvantaged students with more money 2)Standardise public schools 3)Allow teachers to move among different types of schools as well as sharing of resources among different areas and schools

8 Chinese children are entitled to a state education, but not all of them get one. And the tens of millions born to migrant workers. Despite spending more than half there life in cities like Beijing, they do not enjoy the same access to health, education and social services as his neighbours. And because the hukou – registration – is inherited, neither do their children. Most schools would not accept migrant kids, and even if they do - the children won't feel comfortable because of the attitude from the other kids. The migrant communities have to come up with their own solution. Many leave their children in their rural homes, where they grow up away from their parents. The other alternative is to open up migrant schools. There are 800 migrant schools now in Beijing. There isn't a single migrant high school, so when the children reach the highest grade, they have to go back to the countryside or face no further education. These schools are often under threat of closure On your mind map add education as a section – the issues faced the positives and negatives.

9 Housing A house that was left stranded in the middle of a newly built motorway in China has finally been demolished after its owner accepted a new compensation deal. Photographs of the house went viral on China's social media websites last month after 67 year-old duck farmer Luo Baogen and his wife refused to sign an agreement allowing it to be demolished. Guardian: Video of Nail House

10 People living under temporary residency still face discrimination over housing, education, health care and employment. Housing can be a brick home with a concrete floor with no running water and a little stove that won’t heat them in the cold Beijing winters. There are reports of families of four were living in a room no bigger than 4 or 5 sq m. It has been estimated that as many as 150 million migrant workers have moved from the countryside to the cities in search of a better life. When they do arrive in the cities, they are often discriminated against in terms of housing and education for their children. They can usually only find temporary employment in factories or on building sites. As the cities begin to sprawl into the countryside, many poor rural families are forced out of their homes to make way for the new middle-class suburbs that many of the richer urban workers can now afford. The gap between the rich urban workers and the poorer rural peasants is increasing all the time, and the improvements in access to TV, cars, better houses and better jobs all attract more people to the cities on a daily basis. The skyrocketing prices of homes have turned nearly two-thirds of urban dwellers away from the housing market, even as residents' eagerness to buy homes was still on the rise, a recent survey released by the People's Bank of China has showed. In its third quarter survey, more than 65 per cent of urban residents from 50 cities felt housing prices were "high and unacceptable", up 2.8 per cent from the second quarter. Referring to the housing price trend in the fourth quarter, more than 41 per cent of residents forecast it would rise further.

11 Positives With the coming of the market economy and the relaxation of both the Hukou (work permit) and the Danwei (work unit), there were a lot fewer controls on where Chinese citizens could live and work. 276 cities had published housing development plans, a highlight of which is the building of more smaller and affordable houses. The building of houses with a floor space of less than 90 square meters per unit is a key part of the governments policy. The policy stipulates that such houses must account for 70 percent of new houses built in any city. As rapid urbanization drives millions of Chinese into cities and boosts the demand for housing, smaller, cheaper houses are deemed a more effective way of accommodating the rising numbers of urban dwellers than trying to bring down unit prices. They are also building more cheap houses that can be rented to poor people, a concept started in 2003. Add details to mind map as balancing points for Essays

12 Health In the 1960s and 1970s, China concentrated on helping poor rural people by employing ‘barefoot doctors’, who had basic medical skills and who travelled around the villages tending to basic medical needs. Each family paid a fixed amount into the commune funds and this paid for these doctors. With the collapse of the commune system and the introduction of the Responsibility System, many of these barefoot doctors stopped working and the Government was not prepared to finance the system properly. The Government’s answer has been to open up health care to private practice. Village doctors need to make a profit, however, but making money is not easy when your patients are too poor to afford medical services. A World Health Organisation survey, measured the equality of medical treatment and placed China 187 th out of 191 countries. Health care providers, like hospitals in the more affluent cities, have to make money and they do this by providing excessive services to those who can pay, and little to those who cannot. As a result, poor people do without and rich people are charged for many services they don’t really need. Since 1980, government spending dropped form 36 per cent, conversely patient spending has risen from 20% to 59%. Back handers to get operations done are common. One World Bank Study found 20% of China’s poor blamed healthcare costs for their financial problems. The country’s healthcare crisis reflects its biggest problems – fighting corruption, and bridging the divide between the rich and poor and the countryside and the city. Health care across China is about as varied as the vast country itself. China has a few hospitals running to Western levels, all within major urban areas. Hong Kong is well supplied in this respect. But for every 1,000 live births, 25 infants do not survive 12 months. In western Europe, infant mortality is around five deaths per 1,000 live births. That shows how far the People’s Republic has to go. It is now pouring record amounts of its new wealth into health services. Criticism of traditional Chinese medicine overlooks its value in chronic and minor complaints. Western medicine can sit well with traditional Chinese therapies. Medical schools in China mix the two to good effect.

13 Get into pairs and write key facts regarding healthcare on flip chart paper and get ready to give a talk to the class on changes, problems and solutions to healthcare in China.

14 How does it work? Who pays? China does not run the fully state-funded cradle-to-grave system one might expect. Its basic medical insurance covers around half the population. This coverage pays about half the costs of health care. The remainder is paid either by patients or their health insurer. This product is known as “supplementary health insurance” and is the most widely sold health insurance in China. There is growing space for Western insurers, according to Bupa International, which opened a Beijing office in 2006. Louis Dudley, Bupa’s strategy and development director for overseas markets, says that the company was “actively involved” in health industry reforms in China. “We are encouraged that the market is supportive of private health insurers providing services beyond the Government’s basic coverage.”Bupa’s Where’s my GP? Stop looking. Medical care is hospital-centred. Record keeping is limited, in most cases little more than a log book carried by the patient. There are private Western-style medical facilities in Beijing and Shanghai. In rural areas, private clinics are virtually non-existent. In the main cities, however, good quality care tends to be broadly available to all. Explain, using evidence how the medical system demonstrates inequality in Modern China.

15 Change 1.Move from ‘Barefoot’ doctors were the cost was covered by commune. This was basic medical care. 2.Introduction of Western Style Medicine. 3.Move towards privatised medicine. E.g. companies like BUPA establishing themselves in China. Since 1980, government spending dropped form 36 per cent, conversely patient spending has risen from 20% to 59%. Problem 1.Unequal system – much better for rich can now pay for better medical treatment, worse for poor may not be able to afford any treatment. 2.A World Health Organisation survey, measured the equality of medical treatment and placed China 187th out of 191 countries. 3.One World Bank Study found 20% of China’s poor blamed healthcare costs for their financial problems. Solution

16 Cost of western-style care Medical insurance premiums are high, while charges for some clinical procedures mirror those in the United States. Some of the cost is due to patient transport. Some serious medical cases in the big and fast-growing expatriate population are airlifted to centres of medical excellence in Hong Kong or Singapore, but the airlift trend has diminished recently as local services have improved. Foreign ventures are investing in new hospitals and Chinese hospitals are cooperating with foreign hospitals. There are government hospitals run as public services, not for profit. And the government runs a rural health insurance scheme – annual payment of $1.20 which is then matched by local and central government. Private money is pouring into China’s healthcare industry. The number of private hospitals in the country has increased 20.6% year-on-year to 8,947 as of May 2012, according to statistics released this week by China’s Ministry of Health. Meanwhile, the number of public hospitals has decreased 2.8% to 13,441. The Chinese central government has dedicated hundreds of billions of dollars since 2009 to reforming its healthcare system with the goal of providing accessible and affordable health services to its citizens. Nevertheless, the needs of the population remain unmet by the Chinese public hospital system — due to the lack of access to care and dissatisfaction with service provided. Chinese policymakers are well aware of the challenges. Officials from the Ministry of Health and other departments of the government have acknowledged that problems in current healthcare system include inefficiency, high costs, corruption and poor service and that private investment can play a key role in solving these problems. Wholly foreign-owned investments were prohibited, and in joint-venture healthcare facilities foreign investors were limited to a maximum stake of 70 percent. But things have changed. The government revised its Foreign Investment Guide to actively introduce foreign investment to the healthcare service industry. Under the new regulations, there is no longer any restriction on the proportion of foreign investment in healthcare institutions. Create a table to show the advantages and disadvantages of Cost of Western-Style Care.

17 Employment When the State Owned Enterprises closed down many were left unemployed, struggling firms are responsible for paying unemployment benefits. State benefits are limited – there is little provision, migration and homelessness are rising. Over the last 10 years over a million people have been made unemployed, in Shanghai, alone. New jobs are usually for technically skilled workers. There are 20 million new workers entering the labour market each year, chasing only 12 million jobs. However, the Government has launched numerous initiatives designed to reduce unemployment. Vocational training and entrepreneurship are the two ways the Government has tried to reduce mass unemployment. The Ministry of Education stated in 2008 that vocational schools would enrol 8.6 million new students. Also, several provinces pledged to expand their training institutes, Sichuan made $11 million in training vouchers available, and Guangxi allocated $35 million to the cause of providing free training to migrant workers. Some provinces have started programmes aimed at inspiring migrant workers to start their own enterprises. Historically, from 2002 until 2012, China Unemployment Rate averaged 4.2 Per cent reaching an all-time high of 4.3 Per cent in December of 2003 and a record low of 3.9 Per cent in September of 2002. In China, the unemployment rate measures the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force. Processing and manufacture, traffic and transportation, tourism and services, information technology and finance and trade were the five most popular specialties for vocational school graduates when looking for jobs. Public attitude toward vocational schools, which train students to work in technical fields, has improved in recent years, partially due to surging demand for skilled workers in the manufacturing industry. In contrast with the job-hunting difficulties that graduates from universities and colleges have faced, skilled workers have had a much easier time finding employment. Survey results show that 77.26 per cent of all the employed graduates work in various enterprises and public institutions, and 13.36 per cent started their own businesses. Also, 75 per cent of these newly-employed vocational school graduates started at a monthly salary ranging between 1,000 (156.6 U.S. dollars) to 2,000 yuan, and 19 per cent earned more than 2,000 yuan. With financial support from China's central government, vocational education has progressed rapidly in recent years. In 2009, China had 21 million students at secondary school age undergoing vocational education.

18 Crime The Government tackles crime using Strike Hard Campaigns, where it targets particular crimes or regions and gives them harsh sentences. In June 2010 the Ministry of Public Security announced a seven-month strike hard campaign on a number of crimes to curb the rising crime rates. Known in Chinese as yanda, the campaign is targeting extreme violent crime, gun and gang crime, telecom fraud, human trafficking, robbery, prostitution, gambling and drugs. The Government has also acted against corruption. In 2007 the head of the State Food and Drugs Administration, Zheng Xiaoyu, was sentenced to death for taking bribes. Ms Gu the wife of a prominent political figure, Mr Bo stood trial on the charge of intentional homicide in 2012 for the death of Neil Heywood, a British businessman. A Chinese court handed Gu Kailai, the wife of a disgraced Communist Party leader, a suspended death sentence for killing a British business associate who she reportedly feared was plotting to harm her son. In the Chinese legal system, such a sentence is tantamount to life in prison. Ms. Gu could have been executed soon after the guilty verdict was announced. Some legal experts said she could ultimately serve fewer than a dozen years. In news footage televised Monday afternoon by the state broadcaster, China Central Television, Ms. Gu stood in the dock and calmly praised the verdict. “The sentence is just and shows immense respect for the law, reality and life,” she said.praised the verdict In 2008 China reported 4.75 million criminal cases in 2007, roughly the same as 2006, but serious crimes such as detonating explosions and homicides dropped considerably, a senior police official said on Wednesday. "In general, we are still in a period of a high crime rate, but it has been stable," Wu Heping, spokesman for the Ministry of Public Security, told a news conference. The number of crimes in China had jumped from over 2 million in the 1990s to more than 4 million around 2000, he said. The 3.7 million theft, robbery and burglary cases across the country, which dropped only 0.5 percent from 2006, accounted for the bulk of the crimes, Wu said. Rarely a day passes in America or Western Europe where a shooting does not feature in the news, while in China an event like the fatal shooting in Nanjing last month of a man at a bank made headlines because it is relatively unusual. There much less gun crime in China compared to Western countries, despite its size and the enormous task faced by the authorities in policing firearms. According to, which references Karp's Small Arms Survey 2007, Cambridge University Press, there are over 40,000,000 privately held guns in China (numbers are only estimates due to the difficulty in sourcing information in this field in China). That might sound like a lot but when you compare that figure to the total population of China and contrast it to the 270,000,000 guns which are privately held in the US it suddenly doesn't seem too bad! In fact in an estimated ranking of the rate of private gun ownership, China ranks 102 out of 179 countries while America is, number 1.shooting in Nanjing

19 Video: kidnapping-film-interview/4394814 kidnapping-film-interview/4394814 Each year, as many as 70,000 children are said to be kidnapped in China. The more fortunate ones are sold into new families but many are sold into slave labour, marriage and prostitution. Or they end up on the streets. Many never see their parents again. At the end of August, Beijing police reported that this year they had solved 100 per cent of kidnapping cases in the capital. Most victims are children of poor parents, who lack the means to have their voices heard. These kids are taken from the countryside and sold to buyers who desperately want children and are willing to pay tens of thousands of yuan. A 2007 report claimed that around 190 children were abducted daily in China, with trafficking driven by the cultural preference for boys and parents who are willing to do whatever it takes to have a male heir. Peng Gaofeng, was last year was reunited with his son kidnapped in 2008. This was thanks to an online campaign entitled "Take a picture to rescue begging children" that encourages people to post pictures of child beggars. These children have sometimes been kidnapped by criminals seeking to turn a profit. The website has reunited over half a dozen kids with their parents. Kidnappings occur in the capital for very different reasons because it's probably much easier to steal poor children from powerless parents in the countryside if you're looking to sell or exploit them. A two- year-old chinese boy is chained to a lamp post outside Huaguan shopping mall in Beijing while his father Chen Chuanliu works nearby. Chuanliu, a pedicab driver who says he is unable to afford to pay for childcare, chains his son up to prevent him from being abducted. However, behind the image of two-year-old Jingdan lies a tale not of intentional cruelty but, it seems, one of misplaced love and fear: his sister disappeared from the same spot just two weeks ago. "I was afraid I would lose him too," their father, Chen Chuanliu, said. Four-year-old Jinghong has not been seen since 22 January, when Chen left her playing with friends while he worked. Although Beijing is generally regarded as safe, he, like nearby residents, believes she has been abducted.

20 Punishment (Social and Human Rights Issue) China has removed 13 offences from the list of 55 crimes punishable by death. But death penalty campaigners say the revision of the country's criminal code will not necessarily lead to a significant fall in the numbers of criminals executed. The offences were all economic crimes for which the death penalty was rarely if ever applied. They include tax fraud, the smuggling of cultural relics or precious metals, tomb robbing and stealing fossils. It is impossible to say what impact it will have on the number of people given the death penalty each year here. That figure is a state secret, but China is thought to execute more people than the rest of the world put together. Capital punishment will still be available for some economic crimes such as large-scale corruption. The new legal revisions will also ban the use of capital punishment for offenders over the age of 75. Individuals sentenced to death now have the right to appeal, which they didn’t previously have. In Henan Province, in central China, millions of people have been tuning in every week to watch an extraordinary talk show called Interviews Before Execution, in which a reporter interviews murderers condemned to death. The show ran for just over five years, until it was taken off air in 2012. Every Monday morning, reporter Ding Yu and her team scoured court reports to find cases to cover on their programme. They had to move quickly, as prisoners in China can be executed seven days after they are sentenced. Interviews Before Execution was first broadcast on 18 November 2006 on Henan Legal Channel, one of 3,000 state-owned TV stations in China. Ding interviewed a prisoner every week until the programme was taken off air. The move follows a handful of reports about the show in foreign media, which were triggered by a documentary to be screened on the BBC and on PBS International. The aim of Interviews Before Execution, the programme-makers say, was to find cases that would serve as a warning to others. Homosexuality is still a huge taboo in China, and when in 2008 the show covered the case of Bao Ronting, a gay man who murdered his mother, ratings soared. It was the first time Ding had ever met an openly gay man. Bao Ronting was paraded in an open top truck on the way to his execution with a placard around his neck, detailing his crime. The practice is illegal in modern China - but the law is not always observed. Judge Lui Wenling, who worked closely with the programme-makers, says things are changing in the Chinese legal system. "The present criminal policies in China are 'To kill less and cautiously' and 'Combining lenience and strictness'. Bullet or injection There is no presumption of innocence in Chinese law and confessions are sometimes taken before the suspect has had access to a lawyer. Convicted prisoners are killed by a single shot to the back of the head or by lethal injection inside a mobile execution truck. It never interviewed political prisoners or cases where the crime was in question, and the team received the Henan high court's consent in every case.

21 Use information from slide 17 – 20 to create a Tarsia grid.

22 REFLECT Summarise key points from the lesson cycle that might make useful evidence in an essay on social issues.

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