Presentation on theme: "Expansionism/Imperialism II Crises in Hawaii, Venezuela, and Cuba: Even before Mahan’s book, The US Navy had Begun remodeling and modernizing it navy."— Presentation transcript:
Expansionism/Imperialism II Crises in Hawaii, Venezuela, and Cuba: Even before Mahan’s book, The US Navy had Begun remodeling and modernizing it navy. NEW NAVY
Hawaii Sugar Interest 1887 US rights to Pearl Harbor 1890 McKinley Tariff How to get around the tariff “Annexation Club” 1893 overthrow of Queen Lil…warship Boston President Harrison sends a treaty of Annexation President Cleveland withdraws 1898 McKinley reintroduces it and the Senate approves it.
The Venezuela Crisis 1895 Opportunity for US to express it expansive mood. For Years GB and Venezuela had squabbles over the Venezuela/British Guiana Border Gold Venezuela sought US help July 1895---Pres. Cleveland had Sec. of State Olney threaten Britain under the terms of the Monroe Doctrine GB needed US---beginning of US/GB friendship that last until today.
Cuban Revolution Led by Jose Marti---the US supplied arms, money and supplies A truly ugly war---barbarianism on both sides especially under General Weyler (“Butcher” Weyler) Concentration Camps 1896 YELLOW JOURNALISM---Hearst and Pulitzer US Public Opinion sought direct intervention US Businesses were severely hurt and wanted intervention too! McKinley understood War----tried to avoid intervention. The De Lome Letter The Maine War Fever April 11 1898 Congress votes in favor of War Teller Amendment
Spanish-American War The US Army/Navy Typical Volunteer The Most Famous The New Navy under Admiral Dewey destroys the Spanish Fleet in Manila.
William McKinley Did an outstanding job as Commander-In-Chief The State Dept. was in terrible shape and he personally took command. Set up a War Room with full communication. He was re-elected in 1900 with fresh face TR as V-P Re-affirmed a Rep. majority beat WJ Bryan again Revitalized the Presidency as the first strong President since Abe Lincoln Our first “modern President” First to use commissions of experts help solve problems. First to use Newspapers to his advantage No real political enemies…Democrats liked and respected him---found him difficult to criticize.---set the stage for TR and Wilson.
Back to the War Cuba gained it Independence---Teller Amendment US got Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines American Empire stretched into Asia Missionaries into China Puerto Rico gave the US a base from which to protect the Canal it hoped to build in Central America. Foraker Act.---not Henry!
“A Splendid Little War” Secretary of Sate John Hay 5400 Americans died…..379 from combat Blacks fought in the war, no relief from Jim Crow Treaty of Paris triggered an intense philosophical debate over the morality of colonialism…was it right for the US to have overseas possessions? McKinley was convinced that the US was doing God’s work…. Many others did not share his view.
Anti-Imperialist Arguments Mark Twain, WJ Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, and Samuel Gompers How could we get into a war to gain Cuban independence and wind up with the Philippines? Violated the concept of self-determination. Others felt it was an over reach of power for a President….disrupt checks and balances WEB Dubois---subjugated people here in America Gompers---cheapening American Labor. Racism….
Imperialist Arguments Referred to: Patriotism/Destiny/Commerce “Our duty to civilize the barbarians” If we did not take the Philippines, either Germany of Japan would Argued it would be silly to give up something our soldiers had shed their blood for….other countries would laugh at us.
The Anti-Imperialist had a number of Handicaps: We already had the Philippines They were internally divided amongst themselves Inconsistent in their reasoning and positions Gompers Carnegie WJ Bryan 1900 Election as a referendum on the morality of colonialism….McKinley soundly defeats WJ Bryan—this time the major issue was imperialism, and most Americans gave their approval.
Meanwhile back in the Philippines Nationalist leader Emilio Aquinaldo felt betrayed by Admiral Dewey and the Treaty of Paris. Led to the Philippine Revolution 1899-1901 America was in an awkward position of suppression of an independence movement….we were the bad guys…the fighting went on until 1906---leaving the coast clear for an “Americanization” of the area In other words the US subjugated the Philippine economy, passed a sedition act, and then vaguely promised independence once a “stable gov’t” was established [Jones Act 1916]—rule finally ended in 1946.
Cuba Never was annexed, but the US controlled the island thanks to the Platt Amendment of 1901 PLATT AMENDMENT: all treaties signed by Cuba had to be approved by the US -gave the US the right to intervene to maintain order -lease Guantanamo Bay sometimes called the Pearl Harbor of the Atlantic Result: the Platt Amendment made Cuba a virtual protectorate of the US for over 30 years
Cuba America did do some good: built a highway system…public school system Trained and established a Cuban Army Eradicated malaria and yellow fever BUT..…American businesses dominated the islands….by the 1930s we controlled 60% of the land---almost all of the sugar plantations, tobacco fields, mines, and utilities were American owned Give you some idea why the US was and is still…….sooooo hated.