Presentation on theme: "United States in WWII Ali Leake Caroline Surratt Rachel Gadra Hayley Schroeder."— Presentation transcript:
United States in WWII Ali Leake Caroline Surratt Rachel Gadra Hayley Schroeder
Struggles before the war… The end of the roaring 20’s came by means of the great depression $8.5 billion loaned (buy stocks on margin) Hoover was president during the crash. Believed in limited Government interference. Hoovervilles Soup kitchens
Franklin Roosevelt The “Hundred Days” Emergency Banking Act Civilian Conservation Corps Act Agricultural Adjustment Act Also Social Security Act and Fair Labor Standards Act Roosevelt won a democratic senate seat in 1910 but in 1913 Woodrow Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Lost election for Vice President in 1920 and polio struck him in 1921. He lost the use of his legs when he was 39. However he had leg braces put under his clothes so he could stand and make speeches and went to the ‘Little White House’ in Warm Springs Georgia to treat the pain in the springs.
America passes the Neutrality Act in 1935 Germany invades Austria and Sudtenland Munich Pact created Germany invades Poland-England and France declare war US begins Lend-Lease Act with Great Britian Isolationists and Interventionists War on the way
Pearl Harbor Causes: cut off oil exports to Japan, Fleet was moved to Pearl Harbor and Japan sought natural resources in Malaya and Dutch East Indies. Objective: lesson US morale and destroy Pacific Fleet Japanese disadvantages: all three aircraft carriers were absent and shallow water of harbor- all but two battleships were raised and fixed. Battleship row
“At approximately eight o'clock on the morning of December 7, 1941, I was leaving the breakfast table when the ship's siren for air defense sounded. Having no anti-aircraft battle station, I paid little attention to it. Suddenly I heard an explosion. I ran to the port door leading to the quarterdeck and saw a bomb strike a barge of some sort alongside the NEVADA, or in that vicinity. The marine color guard came in at this point saying we were being attacked. I could distinctly hear machine gun fire. I believe at this point our anti-aircraft battery opened up” -Marine Corporal E.C. Nightingale
Key United States Leaders ·Franklin Deleno Roosevelt- first president elected after Depression (1932) o New Deal= reformed American economic system (March 4, 1933) o Died April 12 ·Dwight D. Eisenhower- American General, President in 1952 o “Operation Torch” (November 8)- Morocco and Algeria o Proposed guarding truce with Soviet Union- declined o Domino Theory o Eisenhower Doctrine
General George Patton- one of the greatest military figures, Third Army of United States o Commanded Western Task Force in North Africa, Seventh Army in Sicily, Third Army in France, and Fifteenth Army in Germany o Great leader- determined, colorful character, however not always diplomatic
General Douglas MacArthur- commanded Allied forces in Pacific o Island- hopper; “ I shall return! ” o Japanese surrender ended war o Took charge of U.S. occupation in Japan Demilitarization, democratization, war criminals, broaden land ownership and worker participation, labor unions
Battles of the War! Battle of Midway- Japan targets the U.S. Targets Midway Island, 1,500 miles from Hawaii Midway Island-important American airfield Commander in chief of U.S. Pacific Fleet, Chester Nimitz, was informed a large Japanese force was heading towards Midway Island Happened June 4th,1942 American forces attacked the Japanese force just as their planes were taking off American pilots-destroyed 332 planes, all four of their aircraft carriers, and one of their support ships
Admiral Yamamoto, in command of Japanese force, ordered his fleet to withdraw Battle of Guadalcanal- August 7th, 1942-thousands of U.S. marines, and support from Australian troops, landed on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands Huge japanese air base was being built on Guadalcanal Island and U.S. wanted to strike before they finished building it Fought six months Japanese lost 24,000 out of 36,000 men Japanese abandoned the island Interesting Fact: Island of Guadalcanal later became known as “the island of death”
Battle of the Bulge- Germany now was facing a war on two fronts Hitler wanted to counter-attack in the west Hoped Allied supply lines would break up if a victory split up American and British forces December 16- German tanks were able to break through weak American defenses Allies caught off guard, but was able to push them back Germans had no reinforcements available so they had no other choice, but to retreat After Battle of the Bulge World War ll soon came to a close “This battle is to decide whether we shall live or die…All resistance must be broken in a wave of terror.” -Hitler
Battle of Leyte Gulf- October, Allied forces landed on island of Leyte in the Philippines General Douglas McArthur-Was ordered to leave the islands before Japan surrendered, but didn’t Ordered his army to come ashore at Leyte Japanese devised a plan-Wanted to destroy American fleet, but this plan required using the entire Japanese fleet Went for it on October 23-Navy lost disastrously, eliminating it from fighting in the war Only Japanese army and kamikaze were left to fight
Iwo Jima- War was over in Europe, but fighting in the Pacific between Allies and Japan was still going on March 1945-American marines took Iwo Jima after fighting a month and heavy losses Island 760 miles from Tokyo April 1st,1945-U.S. troops move onto the island Okinawa, 350 miles from southern Japan Japan, put up desperate fight One of bloodiest land battles of the war Ended June 21st,1945 Japan-lost around 100,000 troops America-lost 12,000 troops
Meanwhile, Back on the Home Front… Victory Gardens Planted in backyards, city rooftops, and abandoned lots Included crops such as: carrots, cauliflower, lettuce, onion, pumpkin, peas, radish, beans, corn, beets, broccoli, cabbage, peppers, melon, tomatoes, and squash Neighbors pooled resources Some bought pressure cookers to can their foods
Effects of Victory Gardens Saved money Ensured food for Armed Forces Boosted morale of citizens Approximately 10 million tons of fruits and vegetables were collected
War Bonds First called “Defense Bonds” Name was changed to “War Bonds” Reduced inflation Sold at 75% of their value Ex. Filled special cardboard pages with 75 quarters ($18.75) in exchange for a $25 War Bond that matured after 10 years Basically a loan to the government
Rationing Extreme shortages of goods Loss of labor force Supplies had to be shipped to the armed forces Shift in production of military goods A person was only allowed certain amounts of products (even if they could afford more) Made sure that everyone got their “fair share” Different types of rationing (Uniform Coupon Rationing, Point Rationing, Differential Coupon Rationing, Certificate Rationing)
Women Women before the war were typically housewives (worked in the home, cared for children, etc.) Because so many men left work to fight in the Armed Forces, women were needed to join the workforce. 6 million women took wartime jobs in factories or filling in for men on farms 3 million volunteered with the Red Cross 200,000 women volunteered in the military (Navy Nurses, Pilots, Army Nurses) "Those of us who have seen and know the work they are doing throughout the military establishment of our country and in our foreign stations have only admiration and respect for the spirit, the dignity, and the courage they have shown.“ -Franklin Roosevelt
Minority Groups African Americans and other “non-whites” were still segregated and discriminated against 2.5 million African Americans registered for the draft 909,000 served in the Army (8.7%) 167,000 served in the Navy (4%) 17,000 served in the Marine Corps (2.5%) Minority groups were separated from white
Medical Advances Somewhat developed medicine was helpful More soldiers recovered than died (previously it was vice-versa) 4% died of wounds Antibiotics could prevent infection in wounds Immunizations could prevent some diseases (yellow fever, cholera, influenza, etc.) Blood transfusions Burn Management DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) prevented Malaria and Typhus Atomic Vets controlled exposure to radiation
Hiroshima and Nagasaki B29 bomber-the Enola Gay ten foot atomic bomb-Little boy First bomb on Hiroshima 40,000 foot cloud 3 mile radius 70,000 killed immediately 70,000 killed in 5 years President Truman’s warning to Japan in Postdam Declaration Second bomb meant for Kokura Haze and fighters forced them to Nagasaki Fat man detonated Japan’s emperor surrendered unconditionally “I knew the Japs were in for it, but I felt no particular emotion about it.” -William S. Parsons
“The appearance of people was... well, they all had skin blackened by burns.... They had no hair because their hair was burned, and at a glance you couldn't tell whether you were looking at them from in front or in back.... They held their arms bent [forward] like this... and their skin - not only on their hands, but on their faces and bodies too - hung down.... If there had been only one or two such people... perhaps I would not have had such a strong impression. But wherever I walked I met these people.... Many of them died along the road - I can still picture them in my mind -- like walking ghosts” -Bomb survivor
What was the purpose of the New Deal program installed by F.D.R.? a. Keep foreign troops out of the U.S. b. Provide materials for soldiers c. Reform American economic system d. Have battle plans accessible to troops separated from each other Question 1:
Question 2: What was a Japanese disadvantage in attacking Pearl Harbor? a. They lacked necessary materials to be successful. b. The water was shallow in the harbor. c. Someone had warned the U.S. of an attack. d. The pilots were unfamiliar with the land layout.
Question 3: What was the Postdam Declaration? a. Truman warned Japan that if they didn’t surrender, the U.S. would drop another bomb. b. Union workers standing up for their rights as workers and citizens. c. Truman declaring the U.S.'s determination to be victorious in World War II. d. South Korea declaring war on North Korea.
Who was most famously known for commanding the Third Army of the United States? a. Harry Truman b. George Patton c. Dwight Eisenhower d. Douglas MacArthur Question 4:
The Domino Theory proposed by Eisenhower stated that: a. To be successful in naval warfare, you must have several fleets of ships prepared. b. To defeat nations at war, it was best to attack the largest and well equipped armies first. c. When the economy began to show signs of crashing, citizens would begin to lose faith in the government. d. When one communism fell, other communisms around the collapsed would fall as well. Question 5:
Which statement BEST describes how War Bonds worked? a) War Bonds were donations to help fund the war b) War Bonds were mandatory fees that citizens had to pay to help fund the war c) War Bonds were used by people to loan money to the government d) War Bonds limited a person's purchase of particular items to help provide for the Armed Forces Question 6
Short Answer Question 7 What was the main purpose of the Guadalcanal Battle?
Describe what economic trends lead the US to the great depression. Short Answer Question 8:
Short Answer Question 9: Why were Victory Gardens so important during WWII?
Bonus! Which island became know as “this island of death?” a.Guadalcanal b.Midway c.Leyte d.Iwo Jima
1. C 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. C Answers: 7. The main purpose was to strike the island Guadalcanal, occupied by the Japanese, before they were done building their huge air base. 8. Buying on margin and using credit allowed a huge amount of debt to accumulate.
9. Victory Gardens allowed people to grow their own food rather than buying from stores, enabling stores to have extra food to send to soldiers. Some people who had gardens canned their produce to be sent to those fighting. About 10 million tons of food were grown in Victory Gardens and sent to soldiers. Lastly, people who had Victory Gardens could spend the money that they saved on the war (war bonds, etc.). Answers: Bonus: A