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The history of east and southeast asia

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1 The history of east and southeast asia
ASIA: Lesson 3

2 Let’s get started! Remove all outerwear and take a seat as quickly as you can. (Do you need to talk to do that?) Update your planner; keep it out to be stamped. NOTE: Study Guide Quiz #2 (open notes) is Thursday and Friday! DO NOW: Create a K-W-L Chart for EAST / SOUTHEAST ASIA. List AT A MINIMUM three items you already KNOW about this region. List AT A MINIMUM three items you WANT to know about the history of this region.

I.B. Profile Trait: Risk Take Scholars will be less dependent on Guided Notes and more dependent on the thoughts and ideas they capture in their notes on their own. Scholars Will Be Able To: 6.1B (B) analyze the historical background of various contemporary societies to evaluate relationships between past conflicts and current conditions. 6.2B (B) evaluate the social, political, economic, and cultural contributions of individuals and groups from various societies, past and present.

4 Brief history of east asia
China, Japan, the Koreas, Mongolia, Taiwan.

5 Setting the scene Over 2,000 years ago, Confucius, one of the most important thinkers of ancient times, advised his pupils: “It does not matter how slow you go, so long as you do not stop.” “It is better to light one small candle than to curse the darkness.” “Our greatest glory is not in never failing, but in rising every time we fall.” Confucius taught that everyone has duties and responsibilities. If a person acts correctly, the result will be peace and harmony. His ideas helped both China’s government run smoothly for years and Chines culture to last for centuries.

6 Group Practice Gallery walk.
Nine posters, so about three (3) people per group. Four (4) minutes per poster to Complete your Guided notes.

7 #1 – East asia: Ancient Chinese history
Chinese civilization is more than 4000 years old. A CIVILIZATION has cities, governments, workers who do specialized jobs, art, architecture, and writing. Chinese civilization influenced the development of other East Asian civilizations, and is the oldest continuous civilization in the world. For much of its history China had little to do with the rest of the world. THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA, started before 2006 B.C., is a symbol of China’s desire to keep the world at a distance. Today the Great Wall of China stretches 5500 miles, from the Yellow Sea is the east to the deserts of the west. Ancient China was governed by an EMPEROR, or a ruler of wide-spread lands and groups of people. A series of rulers from the same family was a DYNASTY. Much of China’s history is described by its dynasties. Chinese leaders named their country the MIDDLE KINGDOM, because to them China was at the center of the universe. Early Chinese inventions included: PAPER, GUN-POWDER, FIRE WORKS, SILK WEAVING, MAGNETIC COMPASS, SPINNING WHEEL, PRINTING PRESS, CLOCKWORKS, and the WATER WHEEL.

8 #2 – East asia: Ancient Korean history
Korea was first populated thousands of years ago by people who migrated from Northern Asia. A MIGRATION is a movement of people from one country or region to another to make a new home. Later, other Chinese settled in the southern part of the peninsula. These migrations led to a transfer of Chinese knowledge and customs to the Koreans. By 100 A.D. the peninsula was divided among three rival kingdoms. By 700 A.D. one of these kingdoms, the Silla, conquered the other two and unified the peninsula. In 935 A.D. The Silla Kingdom was succeeded by the Koryo. In the 1200s, the Mongols of Central Asia, would conquer North China and much of Asia, including northern Korean. By the end of the 1300s, however, the Mongols were driven out of Korea and a new Korean dynasty called the Choson came to power. They would stay in power until modern times.

9 #3 – East asia: Ancient Japanese history
The Japanese islands were settled b y people from China and Korea. For much of Japan’s history, CLANS, or groups of families who claimed a common ancestor, fought each other for land and power. Around 500 A.D., one clan, the Yamato, became powerful. Claiming descent from the sun goddess, Yamato leaders took the title of EMPEROR. Many emperors sat on Japan’s throne. For a long time they had little power. Instead the SHOGUNS, or “emperor’s generals” made the laws. Warrior nobles, called SAMURAI, ruled Japan for more than 700 years. Japanese leaders came to believe that ISOLATION, or separation from others, was the best way to keep the country unified. Thus, Japan was isolated from the outside work for many hundreds of years.

10 #4 – East asia: Cultural traits spread
In ancient times, China led the world in inventions and discoveries. Many discoveries then spread to Korea and Japan as people migrated. This CULTURAL DIFFUSION, or spreading of ideas, happened early and the teaching of Confucius were among the first ideas to be passed along. The religion of Buddhism, which China adopted from India, would later spread to Korea and Japan. Cultural diffusion was not always friendly. For example, Korean potters so impressed the Japanese that they were captured and take back to Japan in 1508. East Asia culture owes much to early exchanges among China, Japan, and Korea. The countries changed what they borrowed until the tradition became their own.

11 #5 – East asia: Trade Pressure from the west
Although East Asia was not interested in the rest of the world, the rest of the world was interested in Asia! In the 1800s, Americans and Europeans began to produce great amounts of products in their new factories, and East Asia seemed like a good place to sell them. In 1835 U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry said with FOUR WARSHIPS to Japan to force it to grant trading rights with the U.S. The opening of China was different, Foreign countries wanted to control parts of China and its wealth, and it was clear China was not strong enough to protect itself, as the British, French, Dutch, Russians, and Japanese gained control over parts of China. Fearing it would lose the opportunity to share in China’s riches, the U.S. announced a policy opening China for trade with all nations equally.

12 #6 – East asia: Conflict and communism
Many Chinese blamed the Emperor for the growing foreign influence in their country. In 1911, revolution broke out in China, and the rule of emperors ended and a republic was set up. Meanwhile Japan’s leaders sought control of other Asia countries. They wanted to make sure Japan would have the natural resources it need to for its growing industries. Japanese attacks on other Asian and Pacific lands led to World War II in the Pacific Ocean. (Japan was later defeated in its effort to control the Pacific nations by the U.S.) After WWII, civil war broke out in China. Some people wanted to strengthen China so it could manage its own affairs; other wanted to break the power of those occupying their lands and through them out of China. The Communists won, and the powerful countries occupying Chinese lands were forced out. After WWII Korea was split in two – the northern part was Communist, and the southern part wanted democracy. In the 1950s a bloody civil war erupted. This became one of the bloodiest wars ever for the U.S. After three years of fighting, the war ended – with neither side winning. The battle line at the end of the fighting (the DEMILITARIZED ZONE) remains the border between the two Koreas today.

13 Brief history of southeast asia
Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore

14 #7 – Southeast asia: Prehistoric cultures
Humans have lived in Southeast Asia for at least 40,000 years. For much of this time, the Earth was in the grip of an ICE AGE, so sea levels were lower. Many of the island nations of today were connected by land to the continent of Asia. As the ice melt and the sea levels rose, the region began to look much as it looks today. Prehistoric inhabitants were hunter-gathers; later they began farming rice, while allowed them to stay in one place and create civilizations. China and India began to exert a great deal of influence in the region about 100 B.C. Migrants from China inhabited the northern parts of Vietnam and controlled that land for more than 1000 years; traders from India traveled throughout the region, spreading their culture and religion as they trades. Major agricultural centers developed in the rice growing areas. Islam, the religion of Muslims, could have reached Southeast Asia as early at A.D. Brought by Southwest traders, Islam spread eastward. By 1400 A.D. Islam had become the dominate religion in what would become Malaysia and Indonesia.

15 #8 – Southeast asia: Western colonization
During the period known as the AGE OF DISCOVERY (after Columbus’ discovery of the Americas), Europeans made long voyages in search of gold, spices, silver, and other sources of wealth. They also sought to spread Christianity and to map the world. From ancient times through the Middle Ages, spices from Southeast Asia were brought to Europe by Chinese, Indian, and Arab traders. There was great wealth to be made from controlling the trade, so Europeans wanted to control these lands. Beginning in the 1500s, European nations began to sail to lands throughout Southeast Asia, and by the 1800s they began to colonize many of these lands. Thailand was the only nation in Southeast nation to escape European colonialism. Leaders had agree to free trade with ALL of the European nations, and thus avoided becoming the colony of any of them. By the early 1900s, nearly all of the lands of Southeast Asia were under the control of foreign powers. Colonial rule was often harsh, unjust, and exploitive.

16 #9 – Southeast asia: Independent countries
Japan’s nearness to many of these islands was a great advantage, as the islands resources could quickly resupply Japan of whatever it needed. When WWII ended in 1945, the U.S. granted the Philippines its independence. Other nations soon became independent as well: Myanmar, Malaysia, and Singapore became independent of Great Britain; Indonesia was freed from the Netherlands; and Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam were given independence from France. Once again, newly independent countries faced many challenges, including wars and revolutions to determine the country’s leadership. In Vietnam, the communists had taken control of the north, while leaders in the south wanted a democracy. A bloody civil war lasted until 1975, and ended with the defeat of the U.S. and the reunification of Vietnam under communist rule. Following a period of instability after WWII, many countries have followed the examples of China and Japan and have developed growing economies, especially in the manufacture of textiles. Revolutions and ware continues today in many parts of Southeast Asia, including Thailand and Myanmar.

17 Independent Practice Written responses – one paragraph for each question. Why might southeast Asia get “less attention” than China or India? Why do you think Southeast Asia may play a bigger role in the future of the world?

18 EXIT TICKET Complete your K-W-L Chart with three (3) things you learned today about the history of East and Southeast Asia.

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