Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 – When Cultures Collide Mayan ruins Incan ruins Machu Picchu Arriving at Jamestown French fur traders Spanish Explorers The Aztecs."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2 – When Cultures Collide Mayan ruins Incan ruins Machu Picchu Arriving at Jamestown French fur traders Spanish Explorers The Aztecs
Migration of people from Central Asia dates back 13 to 16,000 years ago, during the last great ice age. At that time, the Bering Strait was a land bridge connecting North America and Asia. The migration of people from the East across this land bridge in search of food, began the slow development of the Western Hemisphere. North America This key explains the coloring of the arrows shown above. The lighter the color, the more recent the migration.
Over a period of thousands of years, North and South America became inhabited with “people of the Earth.” Although there were many great civilizations and empires, this marking period we focused on the Mayan, Aztec and Incan Empires. The empires had their share of differences but shared many things in common. The most notable was their strong belief in religion which required human sacrifice.
The Mayan Civilization was the FIRST empire, and it lasted the longest from 250 – 900 CE. The Mayan Empire had disbanded before the rise of both the Incan and Aztec Empires.
hieroglyphics The Mayan form of writing was known as hieroglyphics. This is a form of graphic writing, using signs and symbols instead of letters, as we do. The Mayans had two types of calendars. The calendar above is for holidays, ceremonies and religious rites. Below is a daily calendar. The Mayans use of hieroglyphics and calendars was a similarity they had with our next group of study, Aztec the Aztec
The Aztec Civilization began in the Valley of Mexico, a swampy marsh in the early 1300s. It took time to develop, but lasted through the early 1500s.
The Aztec people were able to change a swampy lake into a great city – the New York of its day. It was Tenochtitlan, and it was the Aztec’s capital city.
The Aztecs, just as the Mayans did, created calendars, built pyramids and used their own style of hieroglyphics.
The Incas - People of the Sun!
Peru Ecuador Columbia Bolivia CHILECHILE South America Descendants of the Incans can be found today along the west coast of South America The Incan empire came to an end by way of the Spanish, which is similar to the Aztec’s demise. As shown on the map to the right
_____ 3,643 Although the Incan people did not make use of hieroglyphics like the Mayan and Aztec The Incan did use a quipu as a way of recording information and keeping records in a census. A quipu was a knotted string with the knots placed to show numerical value.
Another great achievement of the Incas was a series of canals and pipes known as aqueducts. They would bring water to dry land.
When Europeans heard of Marco Polo’s travels to the Far East. Columbus began his journeys by traveling west, not realizing that two continents and two oceans would stop him and his crew. Arabia Sahara Dessert China India Eastern Europe Pacific Ocean Marco Polo’s Journey
Spain and Portugal took the lead in exploration, sending conquistadors across the ocean in search of riches for their home country. In time England, France and the Netherlands would join the exploration. Our review will begin with the Spanish conquistadors.
conquistadors Spanish conquistadors would search the New World for riches and claim the land for Spain. They were cruel, inhumane and deceptive in their treatment of the Native Americans, killing and enslaving as they conquered.
By 1521, the Aztecs were defeated by Cortez! Although Cortez and his Spanish army had many less soldiers, approximately 500 compared to the hundreds of thousands of the Aztec empire, The Spanish had horses, armor, guns, swords to use in battle. They also had allies in the Aztec’s enemies to increase their troops, but just as important (to be continued!) The Spanish had something more powerful. Unexpectedly, they brought disease to America, which the Native Americans had never experienced and had no immunity against, especially small pox.
Meanwhile in western South America, the Incas were minding their own business. When who should stop by, but Francisco Pizarro, another Spanish conquistador who’ll stop at nothing for riches like gold. By 1535, the Incan Empire fell to Pizarro.
It only took 15 years for the Spanish to defeat 2 powerful empires in the Western Hemisphere. The Spanish had powerful weapons, and they brought disease to America, which the Native Americans had never experienced. This led to what is called the Columbian Exchange
The world got a little closer and shared its wealth as a result of the age of exploration. It was known as the Columbian Exchange. Up to that time, Europe was without tomato, corn (maize) and cacao bean (the source of chocolate). The new world got grapes, bananas and horses to name just a few items. Canada Europe America Caribbean Africa Islands South America
The Spanish were not alone in the exploration of the New World. Holland, France and England joined the exploration.
Religious Freedom Political Oppression Indentured Servant Escape Poverty English settlers came to America for a variety of reasons In short, they wanted to start a new life start a new life !
The first permanent English settlement was Jamestown, Virginia.
French settlers were interested in fur trade. Unlike the Spanish, French explorers treated Native Americans fairly. They knew the natives were essential to survival in the New World.
Map Skills Application Las Vegas, located in southwest USA is located between which two lines of latitude? Answer: What are 30 and 40 degrees north latitude? Answer: What are 70 and 80 degrees west longitude? Albany, located in northeast USA is located between which two lines of longitude? _?_degrees north latitude goes through central New Jersey. 40 degrees north latitude
It only took 15 years for the Spanish to defeat 2 powerful empires in America. The Spanish had more powerful weapons, and they brought disease to America, which the Native Americans had never experienced Giovanni da Verrazano returns to France claiming a New World for France Columbus lands in Caribbean for Spain 1519 Cortez ends Aztec Empire Pachacuti becomes ruler of the Incas 1513 Vasco de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean Johannes Gutenberg invents printing press – 1498 Vasco da Gama sailed from Portugal to India Time Line Review Which came first – Columbus’s arrival in the New World or Balboa reaching the Pacific ? Answer: Columbus arrived first in 1492, but even without a time line, we should know that Columbus began the modern European exploration of the New World. How many years after Da Gama arrived in India did the Aztec Empire End? Answer: What is 21 years? List in order the following people/events from first to fourth: Cortez, Pachacuti, Balboa and Verrazano. Answer: Pachacuti, Balboa, Cortez and Verrazano.
When Europe expanded into the Americas, an exchange of animals and plants got under way. It was widespread and included diseases as well. The Western Hemisphere (the New World) received animals like the pig, chicken, horse and cow, and grains like wheat, rice and oats. A morning favorite coffee and sugar also came from the east to the New World. The development of corn, potatoes, beans Cocoa made their way from the Western Hemisphere to Europe, Africa and Asia, along with turkeys and silver. This was known as the “Columbian Exchange,” and it benefited both hemispheres. After reading the passage above and using the graphic to the right as a guide, answer the sample question on paper at home. Remember to use the RACES model when writing your response. Sample Question: Do you think one hemisphere benefitted more from the Columbian Exchange than the other? The next slide offers suggestions on RACES.
RACES = Restate/Answer, Cite, Explain, Sum Restate/Answer the question. Restate the question and clearly answer it. I think that the Western Hemisphere benefited more from the Columbian Exchange Or I believe that the Eastern Hemisphere benefited more from the Columbian Exchange Cite your evidence. What led you to your answer? Give supporting evidence. Use direct quotes or paraphrase from the text. Examples of how to do this include: The author says… or According to ___, it says in the second paragraph… or The text states… or For example…. Explain how your evidence supports your answer. Examples: This shows… or This means… or This is because… Sum it up! Summarize the main idea. Repeat your answer another way. Make connections to the text, personal or world. Examples: The main idea… or Therefore… or In Conclusion… or That is why… On line paper write a sample response to our Sample Passage from the previous slide
Sample Question: Do you think one hemisphere benefitted more from the Columbian Exchange than the other?