Motivation Socio-economy Status Learning period Ethnic and Culture Age
1. Ellis (1994) defined motivation as an effort that is made by the student as a secondary language based on their desire to learn and comprehend it. 2. Gardner & Lambert (1972) divide motivation into two category, integrative and universal. Integrative is when the student commit himself towards the language and really enthusiast to learn the language and also about the country where the language came from. Meanwhile universal when the student learn the language widely and from all sort of the aspect. 3. Oxford & Nyikos (1989)stated that in America, motivation is the most important in order to learn a foreign language. Students with high motivation in learning a foreign language will have a better achievement compared to student with no motivation.
Parents’ economy also contribute towards students achievement in language. According to Coleman (1996) and Jenks. Parents’ academic achievement also plays a big role in their children academic. Because parents with high academic background will put more effort in their children’s academic welfare. Mohd Nazali (1999) and his friends stated that there’s a significant relationship between parents’ academic status and their children comprehension in English. Parents’ economy status also plays a big role in students academic achievement in language study. This is because with parents stability in their income will be able to put more effort in their children’s education. They could support their tuition fees and private class. According to research that was done by Mohd Nazali in three different Malay school, family with stable economy will do more strategy in Language Learning.
Research that was done stated that students’ who have a longer period of study will have a better strategy in Learning a Language compared to a new learner. According to Ehmran (1990), he had done a research on Students and teachers at US Foreign Service Institute, students who have a longer period of Language Learning will have more strategy in learning a new language compared to student with shorter period of study. This shows that period of learning also plays a role for students’ comprehension in Language studies. Chamot and his friends stated that when the Language studies increase then the cognitive strategy in mind will lessen meanwhile the metacognitive strategy in a person increase.
Observed stated that students from different ethnic will use a different strategy in learning new language. Some students will be more open in learning new language when they were exposed in environment with people who are free to speak their thoughts and mind. Some students are vice versa because of their culture. Research by Liu & Littlewood also stated that an individual in different ethnics and culture have different pattern of language learning compared to other culture. In fact, Asian students are more shy and not that outspoken when the live in big lively city like America.
According to Lightbown & Spada, one of a new scenario is when parents that move to a new country with a different language, their children are able to speak the new native language fluently. This shows that age also plays a big aspect for their children’s language learning. Children, from a very young age have a potential to absorb new language compared to the adults According to Graham (1997), It was a bit difficult to detest the students’ language development based on their age. However, the adults learner have more contextual knowledge compared to ten year old student..