Presentation on theme: "DGP M IDTERM R EVIEW Sentences 1-10. T RANSITIVE V ERBS The Two Rules: a. It must be an action verb b. It must be followed by a noun or pronoun which."— Presentation transcript:
T RANSITIVE V ERBS The Two Rules: a. It must be an action verb b. It must be followed by a noun or pronoun which receives the action (called a direct object)
T RANSITIVE V ERB E XAMPLE : K ICKED Silvia kicked Juan under the table. Action verb Direct Object ( he receives the kick)
T RANSITIVE V ERB E XAMPLE : W ROTE Alicia wrote a love letter on a restaurant napkin. Action verb Direct Object ( what she wrote)
I NTRANSITIVE V ERBS : Two Types of Intransitive Verbs: a. Linking Verbs - All linking verbs are intransitive verbs b. Action Verbs - If an action verb is intransitive, it will not have a noun (direct object) to receive the action.
I NTRANSITIVE E XAMPLES : Huffing and puffing, we arrived at the classroom door with only seven seconds to spare. Action Verb Prepositional Phrase
I NTRANSITIVE V ERB E XAMPLE : Sheryl sneezed with violence. Action Verb Prepositional Phrase
F INAL T IPS FOR T RANSITIVE VS. I NTRANSITIVE : For Action Verbs: - It’s not really about the verb itself, it is about what comes AFTER the verb. - If you can take the verb, ask the question “what” and find a reasonable answer in the sentence, it is Transitive. For Linking Verbs: - Make sure you are strictly looking at a linking verb, not a helping verb. Remember, helping verbs are followed by action verbs! - All solo linking verbs are intransitive!
N OW Y OU D ECIDE - T RANSITIVE OR I NTRANSITIVE ? Rosa usually eats whole-grain cereal for breakfast. Action Verb Direct Object This action verb is TRANSITIVE!
N OW Y OU D ECIDE - T RANSITIVE OR I NTRANSITIVE ? During cross-country practice, Damien runs over hills, through fields, across the river, and along the highway. Action Verb Prepositional Phrases This action verb is INTRANSITIVE!
N OW Y OU D ECIDE - T RANSITIVE OR I NTRANSITIVE ? In the spring, Damien will run his first marathon. Helping Verb Action Verb Direct Object This action verb combo is TRANSITIVE!
A LL THE “P REDICATE ” S TUFF The part of a sentence which contains the verb Usually happens AFTER the subject. Predicates always state something about the subject: a. Describe the subject (an adjective or adjective phrase) b. Renaming the subject (with a noun)
P REDICATE A DJECTIVE Predicate Adjectives follow a formula: Subject+ Linking Verb+ Adjective All of this is part of the predicate Called the P.A.
P REDICATE A DJECTIVE E XAMPLES Pie is delicious. Linking Verb Adjective describing the subject Subject
P REDICATE N OMINATIVE Predicate Nominatives follow this formula: Subject+ Linking Verb+ Noun The noun in a PN always renames the subject! Remember: Nombre and Nominative have the same root word! All of this is part of the predicate Called the P.N.
P REDICATE N OMINATIVE E XAMPLE : Pie is a dessert. Linking Verb Subject Noun renames the subject
PA, PN, OR DO? Maria is hungry for pie. Subject Linking Verb Adjective describing the subject Predicate Adjective!
PA, PN, OR DO? The girl behind Jose is smarter than me. Subject Linking Verb Adjective describing the subject Predicate Adjective!
PA, PN, OR DO? The girl behind Jose is a genius. Subject Linking Verb Noun renaming the subject Predicate Nominative!
PA, PN, OR DO? The girl behind Jose failed the test. Subject Action Verb Noun does not rename the subject Direct Object!
D IFFERENT T YPES OF C ONJUNCTIONS All conjunctions join/hook together words, phrases or clauses. Types of Conjunctions we’ve discussed: a. Coordinating b. Subordinating c. Correlative
C OORDINATING C ONJUNCTIONS : The most common conjunctions Show that items have equal emphasis in the sentence. Joins two or more main clauses or main together Remember the Acronym: FANBOYS F= ForB= But A= AndO= Or N= NorY= Yet S= So
C OORDINATING C ONJUNCTIONS : When I go to the store I want to buy peaches, pears, and oranges. All items on my list are important! Diana stared dreamily at the handsome Mr. McKenzie, but Olivia, who hated economics, furiously jiggled her foot in attempt to ignore him. Both girls are equally important to the sentence’s purpose (to compare)!
S UBORDINATING C ONJUNCTIONS The THREE Jobs of a Subordinating Conjunction: a. To transition between an independent clause and a dependent clause. b. To indicate a time, a place, or a cause/effect relationship. c. To show that one clause is more important than the other. Don’t confuse a SC with a Preposition!
S UBORDINATING C ONJUNCTION E XAMPLE : Ron begins to sneeze violently whenever the girl next to him sprays her flowery perfume. SCMore important clause (Ind. Cl) Less important clause (Dep. Cl.)
S UBORDINATING C ONJUNCTION E XAMPLE : Even though Dana persevered at the calculus exam, she was only adding another F beside her name in her teacher’s grade book. SC More important clause (Ind. Cl) Less important clause (Dep. Cl.)
O THER S UBORDINATING C ONJUNCTIONS after although as because before even if even though if in order that once provided that rather than since so that than that though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why
P REPOSITIONS : Prepositions show where things are in the world - Where things are in space or location - Where things are in time
L OCATION P REPOSITIONS : The puppy is on the floor. The puppy is in the trash can. The puppy is beside the phone.
O THER L OCATION P REPOSITIONS : by near nearby above below Over Under Up down around through inside outside (of) between beside beyond in front of in back of behind next to on top of within beneath underneath among along against In On
T IME P REPOSITIONS These are the same as subordinating conjunctions (word wise) but function simply to tell WHEN something occurred, not to link two phrases together. Before After During At Since While Meanwhile
P REPOSITIONAL P HRASES : Remember, a phrase means “a related group of words” Two simple parts of a Prepositional Phrase (PP) 1. Always begins with a preposition 2. Always ends with a noun (sometimes pronoun or gerund). In between part 1 and 2, there may be some added adjectives or other modifiers.
F IND THE P HRASE : The coyote runs after the rabbit. The car stalled despite the tune-up. The team won without the starting quarterback.
F IND THE P HRASES : The old farmhouse stood for years, after the revolution, by the fork in the road, beyond the orange grove, over the wooden bridge, at the farthest edge of the family's land, toward the great basin, down in the valley, under the old mining town, outside the city's limits, and past the end of the county maintained road.
O BJECT OF THE P REPOSITION The object of the preposition answers the following question: Preposition + WHAT? = Object of the preposition Example: I am at school. at WHAT? School!
L ABEL THE O BJECTS : The old farmhouse stood (for years), (after the revolution), (by the fork) (in the road), (beyond the orange grove), (over the wooden bridge), (at the farthest edge) (of the family's land), (toward the great basin), (down in the valley), (under the old mining town), (outside the city's limits), and (past the end) (of the county maintained road.)
V ERBALS Verbals are words that are created using a verb, but which function as a noun, adjective or adverb.
T YPES OF V ERBALS : G ERUNDS A verb which acts as a NOUN. Key to remember: Gerund sounds like Gerald, a name for a man. A man is a NOUN. Rules: 1. Verb+ ing 2. Can either be a SUBJECT, DIRECT OBJECT or OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION in a sentence.
G ERUNDS IN C ONTEXT Reading is fun. I enjoy shopping. I use pencils for drawing. Gerund as a subject. Gerund as a direct object. Gerund as an OP.
T YPES OF V ERBALS : P ARTICIPLES A verb acting as an ADJECTIVE. Rules: Verb+ ing followed by a noun. OR Verb+ed followed by a noun.
P ARTICIPLES IN C ONTEXT I have running shoes. Frightened, I ran down the street. It’s an unspoken rule.
T YPES OF V ERBALS : I NFINITIVES A verb acting like a noun, adjective, or an adverb Easiest type of verbal to identify: Rule: To+ verb
I NFINITIVES I N C ONTEXT I like to eat. It is the best place to eat. I need a pen to write a letter. Infinitive as noun (D.O.) Infinitive as adjective Infinitive as adverb
P RONOUNS In general, a pronoun replaces or renames a noun with a more simple, general name. There are many types of Pronouns: a. Nominative b. Possessive c. Demonstrative d. Indefinite e. Relative f. Reflexive g. And more! (we aren’t going over more than this though!)
N OMINATIVE P RONOUNS : Directly rename something in the sentence. The most common pronouns: 1 st Pers. Nom2 nd Pers. Nom3 rd Pers. Nom IYouHe/She/It MeThey/Them We Us
P OSSESSIVE P RONOUNS : Show that somebody owns something, or that something belongs to them. His Her’s My Mine Their Their’s Your Your’s
D EMONSTRATIVE P RONOUNS Represents a thing (or things) This That These Those
I NDEFINITE P RONOUNS Refer to something undefined by the sentence. The indefinite pronoun could almost be anything. All Another Anybody Anyone Nobody None Few Any
R ELATIVE P RONOUN Introduces somebody in the sentence such as: The person who called me last night was my mom. Who Whom Whose Which That
R EFLEXIVE P RONOUN Refers to a normal nominative pronoun, but ends in the word “self” Himself/Herself Themselves Ourselves Yourselves Itself
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