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The Big Picture: Ronald Reagan won the presidency in 1980 by appealing to a discontented electorate with the promise to return to a simpler time and conservative.

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Presentation on theme: "The Big Picture: Ronald Reagan won the presidency in 1980 by appealing to a discontented electorate with the promise to return to a simpler time and conservative."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Big Picture: Ronald Reagan won the presidency in 1980 by appealing to a discontented electorate with the promise to return to a simpler time and conservative values. Reagan and his successor, George H.W. Bush, presided over the end of the Cold War and huge changes in economic and social policy. CHAPTER 32: A CONSERVATIVE ERA

2 MAIN IDEA: In 1980 Americans voted for a new approach to governing by electing Ronald Reagan, who powerfully promoted a conservative agenda. CHAPTER 32 SECTION 1: REAGAN'S FIRST TERM

3 A Nation Ready for Change Americans lacked confidence in their government after Watergate and Vietnam Many saw Carter as blaming Americans for economic and foreign policy problems Meanwhile, a conservative movement was growing across the nation Republican nominee Ronald Reagan promoted a smaller government and more prosperity for the nation; he was optimistic about the future of the nation Reagan won in a landslide and Republicans took control of the Senate America in low spiritsThe 1980 election

4 The Reagan Revolution Reagan was very optimistic and believed he could change both the US and the world He started as an actor in Hollywood and joined the Republican Party in 1962 He was a big advocate of free enterprise and limited government and a great opponent of communism After a speech for the 1964 Republican national convention, he became a rising star in the Republican Party and became governor of California in 1966 Reagan was a hero of the New Right: coalition of conservative media commentators, think tanks, and grassroots Christian groups These groups opposed liberal social causes like abortion rights, civil rights, and welfare Reagan’s eloquent defense of conservatism won him many mainstream supporters From Actor to governorReagan’s Conservative Support

5 The Reagan Revolution Reagan is known as the Great Communicator for his ability to explain complex ideas in a way most Americans could understand and was very persuasive Chief goals were to reduce the federal government, deregulate industry, cut taxes, increase defense spending, take a hard line with the Soviet Union, and appoint conservative to the federal courts For the most part, Reagan was successful in achieving his goals A Powerful PersonalityReagan’s Presidential Agenda

6 Reagan’s Economic Plan Regan’s economic plan had two goals: reduce taxes to stimulate growth and cut the federal budget Budget director David Stockman’s budget was based on supply-side economics: cutting taxes for the rich and business would lead to job growth, which would stimulate the economy and help all Americans Many warned that increasing defense spending while cutting taxes would result in huge deficits (spending more than the government makes) 1981-1982: US suffers from worst recession since the Great Depression Unemployment and the federal deficit rose The Federal Reserve made the recession worse by raising interest rate from 1979-1982 in an attempt to slow inflation The lowering of interest rates and a collapse of OPEC’s ability to set high oil prices ended the recession, although most gains went to the wealthy Supply-side EconomicsRecession and Recovery

7 MAIN IDEA: President Reagan took a hard line against communism around the world. CHAPTER 32 SECTION 2: REAGAN’S FOREIGN POLICY

8 Reagan and the Cold War Reagan rejected containment and détente when dealing with the Soviet Union He believed a strong show of force would help destroy it Some people like the Pope and GB Prime Minister applauded he approach; others thought it was reckless and could start a war Urging ‘peace with strength’, Reagan increased the military budget by $100 billion in 4 years Reagan also attempted to build a new defense weapon called Strategic Defense Initiative (also know as Star Wars) that would shoot down incoming Soviet missiles from space It was not successful The “Evil Empire”Military Spending Soars

9 Reagan and the Cold War Power of USSR starts to decline under Brezhnev in the late 1970s The economy began shrinking and corruption rose 1980: USSR was unable to contain protests in Poland with Lech Walesa’s Solidarity movement to get independence from the USSR 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in USSR and wants a better relationship with the US Reagan is more interested in negotiations after his re-election in 1984 A series of meetings eventually resulted in the Intermediate- Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: reduced the number of nuclear weapons that each nation had A weakened Soviet Union US-Soviet Relations Warm

10 Trouble Spots Abroad US begins to get involved in regional conflicts In Reagan wanted to support anti- communist forces around the world, even if the other side was oppressive In El Salvador, the US supported the moderate in a civil war that lasted until 1992 Also a civil war in Nicaragua; Sandinistas were communists, so the US supported the Contras (CIA given $20 million to aid the group) in 1981 When Congress found out about, they cut off funding The White House continued to send aid US wants stability in the Middle East; civil war in Lebanon between Christians and Muslims threatened peace in the region 1983: international peacekeeping force including Americans intervene Oct. 1983: 241 US marines killed when their base in Beirut is attacked 1 st terrorist attack on Americans US withdraws troops Upheaval in Latin America Tragedy in Lebanon

11 Trouble Spots Abroad A few days before the attack in Lebanon, a communist coup overthrew the government in Grenada in the Caribbean Worried about the safety of Americans on the island, Reagan sent 5,000 marines They took back the island in 2 days (this victory helped Reagan win re- election in 1984) Reagan was less active in the movement to end apartheid in South Africa Apartheid was legalized racial segregation South Africa American companies helped keep the white minority in power and in the 1970s, Americans started to demand that the US cut off trade relations with South Africa Reagan preferred incentives for change, but in 1986, Congress overrode his veto to impose trade restrictions and sanctions Victory in GrenadaApartheid in South Africa

12 The Iran-Contra Affair Even though Congress banned aid to the Contras in Nicaragua, Reagan’s national security staff continued to send them funds American civilians in Lebanon were kidnapped by pro-Iranian groups They demanded that the US sell weapons to Iran for their war with Iraq to release hostages Publically, Reagan refused, but privately he sold the weapons to Iran and gave the money to the Contras Plan was carried out by John Poindexter and Oliver North Scheme discovered in 1986: Reagan denies knowledge of plan and many of the documents were destroyed Oliver North sent to prison, but later released on technicalities

13 MAIN IDEA: In 1988 Reagan’s vice president, George H.W. Bush, won election to a term that saw dramatic changes in the world. CHAPTER 32 SECTION 3: A NEW WORLD ORDER

14 The Election of 1988 Public was largely disengaged from the election in 1988 The major news of the election was the success of African American Jesse Jackson in the Democratic primary early in the campaign (eventually defeated by Michael Dukakis) Campaign was very negative and voter turn out was low (50%) Bush won largely due to his economic promises: “Read my lips: No new taxes”

15 The Opening of the USSR For 70 years, citizens of the Soviet Union had no freedom of speech or religion and dissent was harshly punished Gorbachev began opening Soviet society: glasnost was a policy giving citizens free speech, including the right to criticize the government Perestroika: restructured the economy to allow more competition and cut down on corruption Major exception to the new open policy was the cover-up of a melt- down at the Chernobyl nuclear power plan near Kiev, Ukraine

16 The Soviet Empire Collapses Glasnost and perestroika led to calls for independence throughout the Soviet empire Throughout Eastern Europe, groups began breaking away Czechoslovakia: velvet revolution: non-violent revolution that swept communists from power in 1989 1990: Lech Walesa elected president of Poland Revolution in Romania turned violent November 9, 1989: Berlin Wall torn down October 3, 1990: East and West Germany reunited Communists attempt a coup against Gorbachev in 1991; he is aided by Boris Yeltsin and continues reforms By late 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and Gorbachev resigns President Yeltsin of Russia signs Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (START) with US Eastern Europe Crumbles The fall of the Berlin Wall/End of the Soviet Union

17 Other Bush-Era Conflicts Inspired by new freedoms in the former Soviet Union, students in China began calling for reforms April 1989: pro-democracy demonstrators fill Tiananmen Square and demonstrate for 2 months June 1989: tanks roll into the square and gun down hundreds of protesters in the Tiananmen Square Massacre Bush announces an arms embargo, but doesn’t cut off trade During the 1980s, Dictator Manuel Noriega runs Panama and brutally suppressed opposition Indicted in US court for drug smuggling in 1988 Noriega declares state of war with US in 1989 and kills a US marine US troops arrest Noriega and take him to Florida where he is convicted of drug trafficking China: Democracy crushedPanama: A Dictator Falls

18 Other Bush-Era Conflicts August 1990: Saddam Hussein of Iraq invades Kuwait UN imposes sanctions and demands Hussein pull out of Kuwait by Jan 15, 1991 Saddam remained defiant; UN troops attack and push Iraq out of Kuwait by the end of February Called Operation Desert Storm- most of the fighting was from the air F.W. de Klerk elected president of South Africa in 1989 and starts to reform South African society He releases Nelson Mandela from prison and works with him to end apartheid 1994 new elections held: Nelson Mandela elected- 1 st black president; both men win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 The Persian Gulf WarSouth Africa: new freedom

19 MAIN IDEA: The 1980s and early 1990s saw major technological, economic, and social changes that produced both progress and intense conflicts. CHAPTER 32 SECTION 4: LIFE IN THE 1980 S

20 The Space Shuttle Blasts Off NASA develops a space shuttle that could be reused for space missions April 12, 1981 the Columbia is the first launch of the shuttle January 28, 1986, the Challenger explodes shortly after liftoff killing everyone on board Many space missions focused on scientific experiments in space that led to things like infrared cameras and treatments for brain tumors

21 The Economy of the 1980s 1980s: longest peacetime economic growth up to that time A recession in 1982 cut inflation Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan was very active in raising and lowering interest rates in an attempt to control inflation This growth was concentrated primarily among the rich Farmers and traditional industries begin to decline in the 1980s Tax cuts and increased military spending led to huge budget deficits (government spent more money than they made in taxes) Deficit rose from $74 billion in 1980 to $221 billion in 1986 National debt rose to $5.7 trillion US also had a huge trade deficit Uneven economic growthRising Deficits

22 The Economy of the 1980s Regulations (rules) on financial institutions were relaxed to increase investment in business Declining companies were bought, restructured, and sold at a quick rate Deregulation of the savings and loan industry caused these companies to loan out more money than they should to people who could not pay it back The US taxpayer eventually had to bail out the industry for $152 billion The savings and loan crisis forced Bush to break his ‘no new taxes’ pledge The tax hike did not do enough to help the economy (deficit rose to $271 billion in 1992) Unemployment and poverty rose and Bush lost his re-election bid Financial Deregulation & the Savings & Loan Crisis Bush and the Economy

23 Changes and Challenges in American Society Women began to outnumber men on voter roles and tended to vote Democrat Sandra Day O’Connor: 1 st female Supreme Court justice 1984: Geraldine Ferrarro 1 st women to run for vice president on a major ticket 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act: banned discrimination against Americans with disabilities in education and public life (required “reasonable accommodations”) Refugees enter the US from Southeast Asia and Latin America legal immigration limits were raised and 3 million undocumented immigrants were granted legal status Also toughened penalties for employers who hire illegal immigrants MilestonesChanges in immigration law

24 Changes and Challenges in American Society New Jersey v. T.L.O: schools have the right to search student belongings without a warrant Reagan was able to appoint 3 justices to the Supreme Court He and Bush attempted to put as many conservatives on the bench as possible Bork and Kennedy both were appointed by Reagan Bush nominated Clarence Thomas, who faced a tough confirmation hearing where he was accused of sexual harassment (eventually was confirmed) 1981: AIDS discovered Many who contracted the virus were discriminated against because it first appeared among homosexual men and intravenous drug users There is still no cure for AIDS Court Battles over social issues and Supreme Court Nominees A deadly disease

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