2Chapter 5 – Section 1The American West Native Americans gradually lost their battle for land in the West Settlers brought in new enterprises – mining, ranching, farming
3CONFLICTS WITH NATIVE AMERICANS THE GHOST DANCE By the 1890’s, Native American cultures were dying Many Indians turned to traditional religion A prophet named Wovoka told them to perform a sacred “Ghost Dance” five nights in a row, and if they did this, a Messiah would save them, the buffalo would return, and white settlers would leave the West
4CONFLICTS WITH NATIVE… Native Americans and White Settlers clashed over the land The Plains Indians followed the trail of the buffalo, not believing land should be bought or sold White settlers believed the land was available for taking
5GOVERNMENT POLICYIn the mid-1800’s, US government policy underwent a major change: instead of pushing the Indians further West, the government began seizing the land, and relocating Indians to reservations The aim: to break the power of the Plains Indians
6THE INDIAN WARSDefinition: a long period of violence between the US government and the Plains Indians SAND CREEK MASSACRE (1864): between the US Army and the Cheyenne – 150 people killed
8THE INDIAN WARSBATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN (1876): the government ordered all Sioux to leave – instead, thousands of Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians, led by Sitting Bull, gathered near Little Bighorn River – there the US Army attacked, led by George Armstrong Custer – Custer and his men were slaughtered
10The Laramie AgreementIn late 1875, Sioux and Cheyenne Indians were angered at the whites travelling into their sacred lands in the Black Hills.Gold had seen many miners entering the sacred land
11Promises BrokenThe US Government had promised Red Cloud that white settlers would not be allowed to settle here. This was part of the Fort Laramie Treaty.The Sioux gathered with Sitting Bull to fight for their lands.
12CUSTERTo force the large Indian army back to the reservations, the Army sent Lt. Colonel George Custer and the Seventh Cavalry.Spotting the Sioux village about fifteen miles away along the Rosebud River on June 25, Custer also found a nearby group of about forty warriors.
13Out NumberedIgnoring orders to wait, he decided to attack before they could alert the main party.He did not realize that the number of warriors in the village numbered three times his strength.
14Crazy HorseCheyenne and Hunkpapa Sioux together crossed the river and slammed into the advancing soldiers, forcing them backMeanwhile, another force, largely Oglala Sioux under Crazy Horse's command, surrounded Custer and his men in a pincer move. They began pouring in gunfire and arrows.
15Last StandAs the Indians closed in, Custer ordered his men to shoot their horses and stack the carcasses to form a wall, but they provided little protection against bullets.In less than an hour, Custer and his men were killed in the worst American military disaster ever.
16REVENGELittle Bighorn showed the Indians' power. They had achieved their greatest victoryOutraged over the death of a popular Civil War leader the US Government fought back
18INDIAN WARSWOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE (1890): December 1890 Army troops captured some of Sitting Bull’s followers, taking them to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek – soldiers demanded the Indian’s rifles and fighting broke out – the soldiers had machine guns and quickly killed many Sioux warriors – In the end, some 300 Sioux men, women, and children lay dead in the snow
20INDIAN WARS: Resistance Ends In 1877 the government ordered Nez Perce Indians, led by Chief Joseph, to move to a small reservation in Idaho – they fled instead toward Canada and eventually surrendered to the US Army The government had ordered Apache’s to a reservation in Arizona – leader Geronimo fled the reservation and led raids – he and his followers captured September 1886 and held as prisoners
21INDIAN WARS:Reservation Life Policy of “Americanization”: government wanted Indians to abandon traditional culture, identity, and language FEDERAL BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS: set up to manage reservations – government schools DAWES ACT (1877): broke up some reservations
22MINING AND RANCHINGCalifornia Gold Rush Other “new rushes” to the West: silver found in Carson River Valley, Nevada, yielding $500 million in silver over the next 20 years gold strike along Klondike Rover in Yukon Territory on Canada-Alaska border
23MINING COMMUNITIESMining camps were set up – usually just groups of tents of shacks Some camps grew into towns – eventually these towns turned into communities, with churches, schools, newspapers, businesses Some grew into major cities (Denver, CO)
24MINING AS A BUSINESSAt first, prospectors worked the mines with hand tools By the 1880’s, mining was dominated by large companies Miners went to work for companies: dug mine shafts, built tunnels, drilled out ore
25RANCHING ON THE PLAINSCattle ranching: a new business that came to dominate the plains after the Civil War First cattle ranchers in West were Spanish (brought cattle from Spain in the 1500’s – they also were sheep farmers) Spanish and English cattle interbred: TEXAS LONGHORN
26CATTLE DRIVESAfter the Civil War, the East’s demand for beef grew as city populations expanded – by 1866 a $4 steer in Texas sold for $40 in the East Ranchers would drive a herd of cattle to a railroad town, where they would be shipped to meat-packing centers, like Chicago CHISHOLM TRAIL: famous trail from San Antonio to Kansas
27RANCHING AS BIG BUSINESS Cattle Ranchers had trouble managing their herds on the open plains – then barbed wire was invented Between 1882 and 1886 more than 400 cattle corporations sprang up in Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico
28FARMERS ON THE GREAT PLAINS HOMESTEAD ACT (1862): allowed any head of a household over 21 to claim 160 acres of land PACIFIC RAILROAD ACT (1862): government gave millions of acres to railroad companies to build railroads MORRILL ACT (1862): gave states land to build colleges
29OKLAHOMA LAND RUSH1889: some 2 million acres of Oklahoma was opened to settlers Thousands of new settlers came to Oklahoma between 1889 and 1895
30NEW SETTLERSWHITE: came mostly from states in the Mississippi Valley – mostly middle-class farmers or businesspeople AFRICAN-AMERICANS: 1870’s massive migration West EUROPEANS: thousands of northern Europeans, especially Scandanavians & Germans CHINESE: many migrated to California
31CHALLENGES & SOLUTIONS Farming on the plains: -harsh, bitter winters, high winds, snow – hot summers – scarcity of water – limited wood for houses – new machinery helped faming – large corporations started giant farms