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World War I World History Chapter 27.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I World History Chapter 27."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I World History Chapter 27

2 Causes of The Great War 6 Causes of WWI
1. Imperialism – intense rivalries for colonies 2. Need for new markets 3. Nationalism – pride in one’s country 4. Competition for colonies in Africa and India 5. European rivalries 6. Militarism – growth of mass armies As rivalries among European nations grew, armies also grew In the 1890’s Germany began to enlarge its navy in order to rival Great Britain Russia = 1.3 mill; France, Germany 900,000; Britain, Italy, Austro-Hungary , 000 troops

3 Before The Great War Armies continued to mass
After the war broke out, numbers increased further because of conscriptions (military draft) Slavic minorities in the Balkans, Irish in the UK, and Poles in Russian empire wanted their own country Europe was divided into two loose alliances: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy created the Triple Alliance Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente The alliances would set the stage for the war to come

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5 The Spark of War In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was touring Bosnia in an open top car when he was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip in the streets of Sarajevo (the capital of Bosnia) Austria offered to forgive the incident if Serbia went along with a few demands they knew no one would accept and Serbia didn't Austria-Hungary quickly declared war on Serbia. Germany quickly offered support to Austria, and Russia honored its alliance with Serbia

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7 Alliances were formed Because of the alliances already set up, war quickly broke out Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey became the Central Powers Meanwhile, Great Britain, France, Russia and others became the Allied Powers At first, Germany was the successful aggressor taking over much territory in France Eventually, they became locked into trench warfare on the western front and the war stalled at the First Battle of the Marne

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10 Trench warfare See video (3 MINS)
For soldiers who avoided death, the trenches were a nightmare Rats and lice were prevalent Rain flooded the trenches Disease and unsanitary conditions bred disease and sickness that claimed almost as many lives as the fighting did Many soldiers faked illness or shot themselves to avoid staying in the trenches

11 Trench Warfare

12 Meanwhile in the U.S. At first U.S. is neutral to war Many sympathize with U.K. and the Allies U.S. even sold weapons to the U.K. Germany got mad and sank a bunch of ships (including a passenger liner called the Lusitania) with their U-boats (submarines) British propaganda had a great influence on Americans. Stories about German atrocities-brutal acts against defenseless civilians - angered Americans. (They did not realize that many of the stories were exaggerated or not true.)

13 German U Boat

14 The Lusitania

15 The Zimmermann Note In January 1917, Arthur Zimmermann sent a secret telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico In the Zimmerman note, Germany offered to help Mexico regain Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas if Mexico would help fight on Germany’s side The British intercepted the telegram and decoded it and it was then published in American newspapers. Americans were enraged. When revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the czarist government, president Wilson went to Congress and said “the world must be made safe for democracy” On April 6, 1917, Congress voted to declare war on Germany

16 Meanwhile in Russia World War I showed Russia’s economic weaknesses
Along with that The Russian government was corrupt, and could not deal with the problems of the modern warfare By the spring of 1917 the Russian people had lost faith in their government and Czar The royal family was imprisoned and the rule of the Russian aristocracy had come to an end With the overthrow of the czar, a temporary government was set up to rule Russia until a constitutional assembly could be elected

17 Russian Revolution Two factions fought for control of the soviets, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks The leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Lenin a revolutionary socialist and Marxist On November 17, 1917 Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government and controlled Russia in renamed themselves the Communist party Communists renamed the land they ruled the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union This set the stage for the future: The Cold War

18 Lenin and the Bolsheviks

19 The Defeat of the Central Powers
At the end of May the Germans reached the Marne River just 37 miles from Paris At the same time there were thousands of American troops landing in France every day and Britain had set up blockades in the Atlantic Ocean to prevent Germany from gaining supplies The Germans were stopped short and the allies began to counter attack Allied forces were pushing the Germans back and in September Bulgaria surrendered They were quickly followed by the Turks By October the Austria-Hungary Empire had stopped fighting; they broke up and formed separate governments

20 Defeat Continued… Wilson told German leaders that he would only deal with leaders that represented the German people The Kaiser gave up the throne in November and a German republic was announced In 1918 the German Republic signed an armistice that on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month all fighting would stop Germany had to turn over all of their munitions, submarines and war prisoners And the allies would occupy the territory west of the Rhine – the war was over

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22 The Costs of World War I The costs of WW I were very high
It left an estimated million soldiers dead and another 21million wounded Germany suffered the most casualties with 1.8 million dead or wounded with Russia close behind France lost over 1.4 million soldiers Civilian casualties were also very high due to things like Naval blockades, Military encounters, famine and disease had all taken their toll The Financial loss has been estimated at more than 300 billion dollars

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27 Peace talks Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (U.K.) Georges Clemenceau (France) and Vittrio Orlando (Italy) became known as the Big Four They were the leaders of the Allied Powers Held a conference in Paris Wilson created the Fourteen Points (a plan to bring peace and stability to the region) After 6 months of negotiations, the Treaty of Versailles was signed Signed on June 28th, 1919 The Treaty carved large chunks of land from Germany, placed restrictions on the Government and made them pay reparations

28 The Big Four

29 Treaty of Versailles The Germans strongly objected to paying reparations denying that they were alone in starting the war The Alsace Lorraine region was returned to France, Poland was restored as an independent nation, and Belgium gained some territory Germany had to stop its military draft and the Navy could only have a few warships and no submarines Their Military was not allowed to manufacture heavy artillery, tanks or Military airplanes The allies did not have the ability to enforce this WWII would result

30 Treaty of Versailles in 1919

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32 Hitler in WWI under the X…to be continued…

33 STUDY FOR YOUR TEST!!!


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