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World War I World History Chapter 27. Causes of The Great War  6 Causes of WWI  1. Imperialism – intense rivalries for colonies  2. Need for new markets.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I World History Chapter 27. Causes of The Great War  6 Causes of WWI  1. Imperialism – intense rivalries for colonies  2. Need for new markets."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I World History Chapter 27

2 Causes of The Great War  6 Causes of WWI  1. Imperialism – intense rivalries for colonies  2. Need for new markets  3. Nationalism – pride in one’s country  4. Competition for colonies in Africa and India  5. European rivalries  6. Militarism – growth of mass armies  As rivalries among European nations grew, armies also grew  In the 1890’s Germany began to enlarge its navy in order to rival Great Britain  Russia = 1.3 mill; France, Germany 900,000; Britain, Italy, Austro-Hungary , 000 troops

3 Before The Great War  Armies continued to mass  After the war broke out, numbers increased further because of conscriptions (military draft)  Slavic minorities in the Balkans, Irish in the UK, and Poles in Russian empire wanted their own country  Europe was divided into two loose alliances:  Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy created the Triple Alliance  Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente  The alliances would set the stage for the war to come

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5 The Spark of War  In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was touring Bosnia in an open top car when he was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip in the streets of Sarajevo (the capital of Bosnia)  Austria offered to forgive the incident if Serbia went along with a few demands they knew no one would accept and Serbia didn't  Austria-Hungary quickly declared war on Serbia. Germany quickly offered support to Austria, and Russia honored its alliance with Serbia

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7 Alliances were formed  Because of the alliances already set up, war quickly broke out  Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey became the Central Powers  Meanwhile, Great Britain, France, Russia and others became the Allied Powers  At first, Germany was the successful aggressor taking over much territory in France  Eventually, they became locked into trench warfare on the western front and the war stalled at the First Battle of the Marne

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10 Trench warfare  See video (3 MINS)video  For soldiers who avoided death, the trenches were a nightmare  Rats and lice were prevalent  Rain flooded the trenches  Disease and unsanitary conditions bred disease and sickness that claimed almost as many lives as the fighting did  Many soldiers faked illness or shot themselves to avoid staying in the trenches

11 Trench Warfare

12 Meanwhile in the U.S.  At first U.S. is neutral to war  Many sympathize with U.K. and the Allies  U.S. even sold weapons to the U.K.  Germany got mad and sank a bunch of ships (including a passenger liner called the Lusitania) with their U-boats (submarines)  British propaganda had a great influence on Americans. Stories about German atrocities-brutal acts against defenseless civilians - angered Americans. (They did not realize that many of the stories were exaggerated or not true.)

13 German U Boat

14 The Lusitania

15 The Zimmermann Note  In January 1917, Arthur Zimmermann sent a secret telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico  In the Zimmerman note, Germany offered to help Mexico regain Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas if Mexico would help fight on Germany’s side  The British intercepted the telegram and decoded it and it was then published in American newspapers.  Americans were enraged.  When revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the czarist government, president Wilson went to Congress and said “the world must be made safe for democracy”  On April 6, 1917, Congress voted to declare war on Germany

16 Meanwhile in Russia  World War I showed Russia’s economic weaknesses  Along with that The Russian government was corrupt, and could not deal with the problems of the modern warfare  By the spring of 1917 the Russian people had lost faith in their government and Czar  The royal family was imprisoned and the rule of the Russian aristocracy had come to an end  With the overthrow of the czar, a temporary government was set up to rule Russia until a constitutional assembly could be elected

17 Russian Revolution  Two factions fought for control of the soviets, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks  The leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Lenin a revolutionary socialist and Marxist  On November 17, 1917 Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government and controlled Russia in 1918 renamed themselves the Communist party  Communists renamed the land they ruled the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union  This set the stage for the future: The Cold War

18 Lenin and the Bolsheviks

19 The Defeat of the Central Powers  At the end of May the Germans reached the Marne River just 37 miles from Paris  At the same time there were thousands of American troops landing in France every day and Britain had set up blockades in the Atlantic Ocean to prevent Germany from gaining supplies  The Germans were stopped short and the allies began to counter attack  Allied forces were pushing the Germans back and in September Bulgaria surrendered  They were quickly followed by the Turks  By October the Austria-Hungary Empire had stopped fighting; they broke up and formed separate governments

20 Defeat Continued…  Wilson told German leaders that he would only deal with leaders that represented the German people  The Kaiser gave up the throne in November and a German republic was announced  In 1918 the German Republic signed an armistice that on the 11 th hour of the 11 th day of the 11 th month 1918 all fighting would stop  Germany had to turn over all of their munitions, submarines and war prisoners  And the allies would occupy the territory west of the Rhine – the war was over

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22 The Costs of World War I  The costs of WW I were very high  It left an estimated million soldiers dead and another 21million wounded  Germany suffered the most casualties with 1.8 million dead or wounded with Russia close behind  France lost over 1.4 million soldiers  Civilian casualties were also very high due to things like Naval blockades, Military encounters, famine and disease had all taken their toll  The Financial loss has been estimated at more than 300 billion dollars

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27 Peace talks  Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (U.K.) Georges Clemenceau (France) and Vittrio Orlando (Italy) became known as the Big Four  They were the leaders of the Allied Powers  Held a conference in Paris  Wilson created the Fourteen Points (a plan to bring peace and stability to the region)  After 6 months of negotiations, the Treaty of Versailles was signed  Signed on June 28 th, 1919  The Treaty carved large chunks of land from Germany, placed restrictions on the Government and made them pay reparations

28 The Big Four

29 Treaty of Versailles  The Germans strongly objected to paying reparations denying that they were alone in starting the war  The Alsace Lorraine region was returned to France, Poland was restored as an independent nation, and Belgium gained some territory  Germany had to stop its military draft and the Navy could only have a few warships and no submarines  Their Military was not allowed to manufacture heavy artillery, tanks or Military airplanes  The allies did not have the ability to enforce this  WWII would result

30 Treaty of Versailles in 1919

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32 Hitler in WWI under the X…to be continued…

33 STUDY FOR YOUR TEST!!!


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