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Meanwhile, somewhere in California

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Solar plasma Convection is complicated Temperature is very high Completely or partially ionized gas -> Charges (protons and electrons) are present + Magnetic field is somehow generated and observed Quite dense -> Need a good description of ionized fluid (plasma), since solving ~10 30 equations of motion for each charged particle is not realistic…

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MHD Start with basic principles: 6D volume in phase space, distribution function Derive general transport equation Calculate 0,1,2-momenta for velocity Average over different particle types Add induction equation for magnetic field Simplify

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Some kinetics - Distribution function for particles f(r i,p i,t) in 6-dimensional space of coordinates and momenta. We can write a “conservation” equation for it. Liouville equation Collisions change the “conservation”: Boltzmann equation (BE) BE in vector form

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Simplifying kinetics - We want to get rid of velocity part of space. To do it we integrate BE for particle type a over an arbitrary volume in v-space d 3 V. We also multiply BE by a function of v, Χ(v). Generalized transport equation for Χ. Where the averages <> are

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