2Setting the Stage The Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan Containment The Domino TheoryThe Berlin BlockadeThe Berlin WallWhy are these events so important when trying to understand the Cold War?Based on your knowledge of the Cold War, outline the reasons why your historical policy or event helped increase the tension at the outset of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
3The Bay of Pigs Invasion The 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempt at invasion following the Cuban Revolution that saw Fidel Castro come to powerIt was planned and funded by the United StatesThe invasion was carried out by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba.This action accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations worsened by the Cuban Missile Crisis the following year.
10October 16, 1962President John F. Kennedy was informed of the missiles while eating breakfast.President Kennedy convened EX-COMM, his twelve most important advisors.What the president didn’t know was that Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev had given the Soviet field commanders in Cuba permission to launch nuclear missiles if the United States invaded.
15October 18, 1962President John F. Kennedy meets with and advises Soviet Foreign Minister Andrie Gromyko that the United States will not tolerate the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba. Gromyko denies having weapons of any sort in Cuba.
21October 21,1962Kennedy asks the Air Force if they could take out all of the Cuban missiles. “Only the ones we know about” replied the Air Force. President Kennedy decided to navel block Cuba.Another U-2 plane discovered missiles being built on the North Shore of Cuba. President Kennedy told the media that he would tell the American Public tomorrow.
26The American ResponseKennedy and Congress had already passed a resolution stating the placement of nuclear weapons in Cuba would no be toleratedThey realized they had to act quickly before the missiles were activeThey had a number of choices at their disposal – This has become known as the “Escalation Ladder”
27The Escalation Ladder Do Nothing Go to the United Nations *Naval Blockade*Strategic Air strikeFull Invasion of CubaWhich policy do you think the USA should have employed with the Soviets?In groups of 5 or 6 which I will choose – make a case for your option.
28Why was “Do Nothing” not an option? The Truman Doctrine prevented itThe weapons were too dangerous to American safetyKennedy would be perceived as weak by the Soviets – This could empower them to make another move on Berlin or another contentious European locationKennedy would be committing political suicide at home
29Go to the UN?PROSUsing the United Nations for diplomacy which is goodValidates the United Nation’s role in global politicsCONSTakes too longCould appear indecisiveToo many interest groupsRussia and the United States both have veto powers on the Security Council – hard to reach a consensusDECISION:Good option in conjunction with another choice
30Naval Blockade PROS CONS Its not war and it is a show of strength without missilesA Naval quarantine is an effective way of turning away missilesCONSPuts the United States in direct confrontation with the USSRSinking a soviet ship is an act of warDECISION:Safer than an air strike or full invasion
31Strategic Airstrike PROS CONS Will effectively knock out Soviet missilesGood show of American strengthCONSWhen Soviet missiles are destroyed it is likely that Soviet soldiers will die as well – this is an act of warDECISION:Option number two but would prefer not to use it
32InvasionPROSThe United States secures Cuba and ensures nuclear safety from the countryThe United States sends a clear message to the Soviets to stay out of the westCONSA full invasion would surely kill Soviet soldiers which would be considered an act of warThe nuclear consequences could be disastrousDECISION:Too risky, can only be used as a last resort
34October 22, 1962 The public was informed of the crisis on this day. Senate leaders were informed of the crisis and called for air strikes.Kennedy reinforced his decision for a quarantine.Marines reinforced the base at Guantanamo Bay.
35President Kennedy’s Speech Addressed the nation about what was going on in CubaAnnounced plans to implement a naval blockade of Cuba.Sets military alert to DEFCON 3.Instructions were given to be ready to launch missiles within minutes of the President's speech.In response to this speech, Castro mobilized of Cuba’s military forces.
36Meanwhile back in Montana~ Kennedy ordered Malmstrom officials to be prepared to launch the missiles at any time.
39Wednesday Soviet ships approached the quarantine. EX-COMM was worried that Khrushchev had not got hold of the ships to tell them to turn back.They got information later telling them Soviet ships had stopped.
40WednesdaySecretary of State Dean Rusk quoted, “We were eyeball to eyeball and the other guy just blinked.”The crisis was not at its end.
42October 25, 1962U.S. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson confronts the Soviets at the U.N. but they refuse to answer.American military forces are instructed to set DEFCON 2 the highest ever in U.S. history.The military could, at a moment's notice, launch an attack on Cuba or the Soviet Union.Kennedy sends letter to Khrushchev blaming the soviets for the start of this crisis.EX-COMM discusses a proposal to withdraw missiles from Turkey if the Soviets withdraw their missiles from Cuba.
44SaturdayKhrushchev sends a letter saying if the U.S. removes its missiles from Turkey they will remove theirs in Cuba.Pilot, Major Rudolf Anderson an American U-2 flier was shot down over Cuba.
45SaturdayU-2 pilot strays into Soviet airspace accidentally while flying in Alaska. Soviet fighters nearly took the plane down.President Kennedy will make a statement saying he will not invade Cuba.
46Why Cuba Mr. Krushchev? Brinkmanship An opportunity to close the missile gap—Currently far behind U.S. in terms of number of missilesProtect Cuba – Castro had begun relations with the USSRReciprocity: The U.S. has missiles pointing at the Soviets (ie. Turkey)
47Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba? Cuba was a new Communist stateCuba provided a launch base for USSR inter-continental missiles (ICMs)Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president, JFKKhrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over US missile in Europe