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1 Generating Assistive Technology Systemically Where powerful, long-term, systemic changes in teacher education are stimulated!

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Presentation on theme: "1 Generating Assistive Technology Systemically Where powerful, long-term, systemic changes in teacher education are stimulated!"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Generating Assistive Technology Systemically Where powerful, long-term, systemic changes in teacher education are stimulated! http://genasys.usm.maine.edu E-mail: genasys@usm.maine.edugenasys@usm.maine.edu

2 2 Bridging the Gap Bridging the Gap: General Education and Students with Disabilities Designers:Cynthia Curry ccurry@usm.maine.edu Walter Kimball, Ph.D. wkimball@usm.maine.edu wkimball@usm.maine.edu Production Coordinator: Doug Kahill dkahill@usm.maine.edu dkahill@usm.maine.edu

3 3 Your Designers Cynthia CurryWalter Kimball

4 4 Welcome! The purpose of this module is to increase awareness and knowledge of how general educators can use assistive technology to improve the PreK-12 experience of students with disabilities. It is designed as both a presentation during a course or workshop, or for independent viewing.

5 5 Outcomes Identify assistive technology solutions for students with disabilities in the general education classroom Describe the role of the general education teacher in the achievement of students with disabilities Apply the principles of universal design in curriculum

6 6 Learning Opportunities Viewers will be able to –See a variety of educational assistive technology applications –Engage in the concepts of universal design and how they apply to general education –Participate in and create classroom scenarios in which students face obstacles and rely on the skills of their teachers for assistive technology solutions –Explore online resources for learning more about technology that enables teachers to bridge the gap between the general education curriculum and students with special needs

7 7 What is Assistive Technology “…any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.” (IDEA Amendments of 1997, 20USC 1401[1], Sec.300.5)

8 8 Assistive Technology Application Antonio is a high school freshman who has a reading disability. On the first day of school, his teachers distribute several handouts regarding class policies, guidelines, and syllabi. None of these are in a format that Antonio can read. With technology in mind, Antonio, his classroom teachers, and his special education teacher create a solution.

9 9 Assistive Technology, cont’d Antonio and each of his teachers have access to a desktop computer and e- mail accounts. They devise a system by which all handouts are e-mailed to Antonio, allowing him to use specialized software, such as text-to-speech, to assist his reading. They soon realize that assignments can also be mailed to Antonio electronically, who submits them by e-mail after completion.

10 10 Module Overview Part 1: Using Technology to Enable Universal Design in Curriculum Part 2: Including Assistive Technology Part 3: Demonstrations and Simulation I Part 4: Demonstrations and Simulation II Part 5: Read All About It! Online Resources

11 11 Welcome to Part 1 Using Technology to Enable Universal Design in Curriculum

12 12 In Part 1, We Will Explore how the concepts of universal design apply to learning and curriculum Be introduced to technology that allows flexibility and built-in accommodations for a variety of learners

13 13 What is Universal Design? “…an approach to creating environments and products that are usable by all people to the greatest extent possible.” -Adaptive Environments, 1995 (p. 1)

14 14 Concepts of Universal Design Involves environmental needs of all users Re-establishes an important goal of good design Suggests solutions that are capable of being adjusted or modified to meet varied requirements Promotes cost effectiveness Applies to everyone –Adaptive Environments, 1995

15 15 Universal Design in Curriculum Includes: flexible curricular materials built-in alternatives for activities and materials assistive technology that enables the participation of the widest population of students possible

16 16 How Can Teachers Practice Universal Design? Provide: multiple representations of the information being presented multiple or modifiable means of expression and control multiple or modifiable means of motivating and engaging students –Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) http://www.cast.org

17 17 Example: Universal Access to Text Electronic versions of text material (i.e., scanned, World Wide Web) are usable by students with a wide range of abilities when accompanied by software that provides flexible reading supports, such as added spoken voice and visual highlighting of the text.

18 18 Universal Access to Text, cont’d See how these software programs promote universal design principles by visiting their makers online: http://www.cast.org http://www.lhsl.com

19 19 Universal Design and Technology Go Hand-in-Hand National technology standards include all students http://www.iste.orghttp://www.ncate.org

20 20 Universal Design and Federal Mandates Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973 –Prohibits exclusion of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities receiving Federal financial assistance http://www.dol.gov/dol/oasam/public/regs/statut es/sec504.htm

21 21 Universal Design and Federal Mandates Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 –Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability http://www.dinf.org/ada-home.html Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 –Ensures a free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/the_law.html

22 22 Universal Design and Federal Mandates, cont’d Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (1998) –Prohibits Federal agencies from procuring, developing, maintaining, or using electronic and information technology that is inaccessible to people with disabilities http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/508/508home.html

23 23 A Parent’s Perspective “The computer has enabled my daughter to do the same writing assignments as her classmates and allowed her to be proud of her work and her efforts. For Rachel, the computer is not a luxury, but rather a necessity. I am grateful that the technology exists.…” s Margaret Simons, PhD, from “A Computer is Not a Luxury” http://www.ataccess.org/AboutUs/atastories3.html

24 24 A Professor’s Perspective “Inclusion is based on the belief that people/adults work in inclusive communities, work with people of different races, religions, aspirations, disabilities. In the same vein, children of all ages should learn and grow in environments that resemble the environments they will eventually work in.” s Dr. Susan Etscheidt, Professor of Special Education, University of Northern Iowa http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/philosophy.html

25 25 A Teacher’s Perspective “I was very nervous at first about having all students in my room. How could I pick material that they all could understand and connect with? I’ve found out that creating questions that all students can answer is the key. When I did a unit on slavery and the Civil War, we used the question, ‘What does it mean to be free?’” s High School Social Studies Teacher (Jorgensen, 1997)

26 26 A Student’s Perspective “I really like school…everyone accepts me here and I really like challenging myself for the academics.” s 15 year-old high school student with hearing loss (Microsoft, 1999)

27 27 Welcome to Part 2 Including Assistive Technology

28 28 In Part 2, We Will Meet two students with disabilities who are participating in and contributing to the general education classroom with the support of AT Be introduced to specific examples of AT for the classroom

29 29 Assistive Technology (AT) and Students with Disabilities View the following video segment, provided by Microsoft’s Enable: People with Disabilities and Computers, and see how two teenagers with disabilities are learning in the general education classroom with the support of AT. Click here to view the video. Click here to view the video.

30 30 Appropriate AT is a Key to Meeting a Range of Learning Needs Used by students with disabilities to conduct the same tasks as other students Provides students with access, control, independence, and confidence Enables students with and without disabilities to succeed

31 31 The AT Continuum High-tech Low-tech Generally inexpensive Requires little training to use Broader utility Greater sophistication Requires more training to use Generally more expensive Velcro Pencil grip Audio books Customized keyboard Screen reader software Adapted Computer

32 32 Examples of Low-tech AT for the Classroom For a student with: Low muscle tone –Velcro on the pages of a book for page-turning –Pencil grip

33 33 Examples of Low-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: A visual disability –Magnifying lens –Highlighting pen or tape to change background color

34 34 Examples of Low-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: A writing disability –Tape recorder for lecture notes A reading disability –Textbooks on audio tape

35 35 Examples of Low-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: A learning disability –Number line –Graph paper for aligning numbers

36 36 Examples of High-tech AT for the Classroom For a student with: Limited range of motion, physical, or learning disabilities –Alternative input devices (touch screen, trackball, customized keyboard)

37 37 Examples of High-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: Low vision –Screen reading software –Closed-circuit television for magnifying reading material

38 38 Examples of High-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: A writing disability –Spell and grammar check software –Word prediction computer software

39 39 Examples of High-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: A learning disability in mathematics –Specialized computer software, such as talking math worksheets

40 40 Examples of High-tech AT for the Classroom, cont’d For a student with: A reading disability: –Text-to-speech software (in addition to eReader and Kurzweil 3000)

41 41 More AT products can be seen online at: Don Johnston, Inc http://www.donjohnston.com/catalog/catalog.htm Mayer-Johnson, Inc http://www.mayer-johnson.com RJ Cooper & Associates http://rjcooper.com/site-map/ Dragon Systems, Inc http://www.dragonsys.com/products/index.html

42 42 More AT products can be seen online at: Laureate http://www.laureatelearning.com/webpros/llsmain/lls home/prodindex.html Assistive Technology, Inc http://www.assistivetech.com/prod-index.htm AbleNet, Inc http://www.ablenetinc.com/web/homesite.nst?open textHELP Systems Ltd http://www.texthelp.com

43 43 Welcome to Part 3 Demonstrations and Simulation I

44 44 In Part 3, We Will Be presented with scenarios that students with disabilities in general education classrooms face each day Learn the strategies that teachers can implement, using AT, to keep students with disabilities included in the same activities as those without disabilities

45 45 Demonstrations of Inclusive Education In the next two parts, we will explore how AT is used to enable students with disabilities in the general education classroom. In both parts, we will first view a segment of video provided by the University of Washington’s DO-IT program (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology).

46 46 Demonstrations of Inclusive Education, cont’d Following the video, we will be introduced to a series of five students with disabilities from grades PreK to 12. Each student encounters an obstacle in the general education classroom and the teacher, working with school specialists, implement AT solutions to maintain the student’s participation in class activities.

47 47 DO-IT Video, Part 1 AT Designed for: –Low Vision –Blindness –Hearing and Speech Impairment Click here to view the video Click here to view the video

48 48 Scenario 1: Story Time Mr. Hawkes is reading “Make Way for Ducklings” to a group of first graders. Students orally respond to questions posed by Mr. Hawkes. Carrie, a student who is nonverbal, uses pointing and utterances to answer a question about the story. Her attempts to express her ideas are briefly acknowledged by Mr. Hawkes before he moves on to another student.

49 49 Intervention for Scenario 1: (Story Time) After consulting with Carrie’s special education teacher, Mr. Hawkes uses augmentative communication and interactive story extensions in the form of communication boards and felt and Velcro boards. With this AT, Carrie expresses her ideas about the story more clearly during the next story time.

50 50 Intervention for Scenario 1: (Story Time ) This is an example of an augmentative communication board that Carrie might use. Specific messages can be saved in the board by a parent, teacher or student.

51 51 Scenario 2: Chemistry Lab Juan, a student with low vision, is following a lab procedure that states, “Add 20 milliliters of distilled water to a beaker.” He needs to distinguish which flask contains the distilled water and then monitor its volume as it is added to the clear glass beaker.

52 52 Intervention: Scenario 2 (Chemistry Lab) Juan’s science teacher distinguishes the flasks using color-coded labels. She also equips a beaker with a liquid level tone indicator so Juan knows when the volume of distilled water reaches the 20 milliliter mark.

53 53 Intervention: Scenario 2 (Chemistry Lab) This is an example of a liquid level indicator that Juan might use. When the liquid reaches the prongs, a tone oscillates.

54 54 Scenario 3: Written Composition In language arts class, Amy, an eighth grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is searching the World Wide Web for a research project. She is having difficulty focusing due to the activities and discussions of her classmates.

55 55 Intervention: Scenario 3 (Written Composition) Amy’s teacher presents her with a headset and suggests that she open a text-to-speech software program that has a synthetic voice to read the text on the screen. This allows Amy to work productively as the pages she is viewing are read to her. Meanwhile, her classmates are able to continue to discuss research and conduct activities around the room.

56 56 Intervention: Scenario 3 (Written Composition) This headset connects directly to the computer. Combined with text- to-speech software, Amy can more successfully search the Web.

57 57 Scenario 4: Computer Class Pedro, a sixth grader with fine motor difficulties, has just learned that his computer class is going to begin keyboarding lessons tomorrow. Due to his disability, Pedro is concerned that he won’t meet the standards that Mrs. Smith presented in class.

58 58 Intervention: Scenario 4 (Computer Class) Mr. Wu, Pedro’s special education teacher, and Mrs. Smith adapt a computer in the classroom with an onscreen keyboard, a technology developed for those who cannot type but are able to point or use a mouse. Mr. Wu arranges a meeting with Mrs. Smith to discuss ways that Pedro can meet the technology standards, such as typing fewer words per minute.

59 59 Intervention: Scenario 4 (Computer Class) Pedro might use this onscreen keyboard by touching the onscreen keys or by using a mouse or trackball to click on the keys.

60 60 Scenario 5: Note-taking Assignment Maria, a sophomore in high school with a writing disability, has been asked to read and outline Chapter 3 of her social studies text for homework.

61 61 Intervention: Scenario 5 (Note-taking Assignment) Mr. Brogan, Maria’s teacher, encourages her to complete the outline using concept mapping software that enables her to organize her thoughts and outline the chapter efficiently using a computer.

62 62 Intervention: Scenario 5 (Note-taking Assignment) Inspiration™ is an example of concept mapping software. Outlines can be created in both diagram and outline views.

63 63 Welcome to Part 4 Demonstrations and Simulation II

64 64 In Part 4, We Will Continue with video from the DO-IT program Encounter five additional students, their teachers, and AT solutions

65 65 Review In Part 3, we viewed Part 1 of the DO-IT video (AT designed for disabilities in the areas of vision, hearing, and speech) and met five students and the professionals who work with them. In Part 4, we will view Part 2 of the DO-IT video (AT designed for disabilities in the areas of learning and mobility) and then return to the general education classroom to meet five additional students.

66 66 DO-IT Video, Part 2 AT designed for: –Learning disabilities –Mobility impairments Click here to view the video

67 67 Scenario 6: Online Research It is September and Ms. Lindquist, a new teacher, plans to bring her sophomore biology class to the computer room to conduct online research of a current biotechnology event. Beth, a student in her class, has low vision and informs Ms. Lindquist that she cannot read from a computer screen.

68 68 Intervention: Scenario 6 (Online Research) Ms. Lindquist coordinates an effort with special education and the technology department to adapt a computer for Beth. Access to AT is added to Beth’s IEP. Text-to-speech software is ordered and Beth and Ms. Lindquist learn how to enlarge text and graphics within the computer’s operating system.

69 69 Intervention: Scenario 6 (Online Research) On a PC, text and graphics can be enlarged by choosing Start/Programs/Ac- cessories/Magnifier. On a Mac, choose Control Panels/ CloseView.

70 70 Scenario 7: Mouse Maneuvers Mr. Kaneko, a second grade teacher, observes his student Jeanne making several unsuccessful attempts to “double click” on the mouse of a classroom computer.

71 71 Intervention: Scenario 7 (Mouse Maneuvers) Mr. Kaneko works with the school’s occupational therapist and introduces Jeanne to a trackball. Jeanne likes being able to navigate programs with a single click. Several of Jeanne’s classmates also enjoy the features of this mouse alternative.

72 72 Intervention: Scenario 7 (Mouse Maneuvers) Features of trackballs: One of the buttons launches programs with a single click A “lock” button keeps pull-down menus open while the user makes a selection

73 73 Scenario 8: Web Accessibility Galit, an eighth grader with a hearing disability, is new to Springfield. Before her first day of school, Galit logs on to her school’s Web site for an introduction. At the site, video provides interviews with faculty and students. However, Galit does not have access because the video is not captioned.

74 74 Intervention: Scenario 8 (Web Accessibility) Galit and her parents meet with the school’s technology coordinator, Mrs. Perez, to notify her of the access issue with the site. Mrs. Perez works with her student team, not only to add captions and verbal descriptions to the video, but also to add alternative text to images for visitors with visual disabilities.

75 75 Intervention: Scenario 8 (Web Accessibility) More information and resources on Web accessibility are available at: http://genasys.usm.maine.edu/access.htm

76 76 Scenario 9: Text to Speech Tim is a ninth grader with a reading disability. In elementary and middle schools, worksheets and handouts were read to him. As Tim enters high school, he is seeking more independence.

77 77 Intervention: Scenario 9 (Text to Speech) Miss Stanley, Tim’s science teacher, advocates to have Tim’s reading assignments scanned and read aloud to him by a text-to-speech software program.

78 78 Scenario 10: Language Arts Lucia, a seventh grader with a writing disability, recently joined Mr. Francesco’s language arts class. Her first assignment is to write an essay on the person she admires most. She is having difficulty with word recall and has frequent spelling and grammar errors.

79 79 Intervention: Scenario 10 (Language Arts) After assessing Lucia’s paper, Mr. Francesco consults with her special education teacher, who suggests a word prediction program and spelling and grammar check software. Mr. Francesco recognizes the value of this technology and introduces it to all of his students.

80 80 Intervention: Scenario 10 (Language Arts) This is an example of a word prediction program Lucia might use. Notice that as the first letter is typed, the program predicts words for users to select from.

81 81 Summary As the scenarios presented in Parts 3 and 4 have demonstrated, students have individualized learning needs. To meet these needs, students rely on the collaboration of parents and professionals who are knowledgeable about the availability of assistive technology, specialized software, Web accessibility, and universal design in curriculum.

82 82 Welcome to Part 5 Read All About It! Online Resources

83 83 In Part 5, We Will –Present five online articles and seven organizations. It is suggested that you visit these sites, review, and consider the information as it relates to your PT3 project.

84 84 Online Article 1 Assistive Technology and Inclusion http://www.pgh.auhs.edu/CFSP/brochure/asstech.htm http://www.pgh.auhs.edu/CFSP/brochure/asstech.htm Follow Joey, a student with cerebral palsy, as he experiences school from kindergarten to middle school. See the difference that AT makes in his life, as well as the lives of his teachers and classmates.

85 85 Online Article 2 Assistive Technology for Students with Mild Disabilities http://at-advocacy.phillynews.com/docs/ericatmilddis.html http://at-advocacy.phillynews.com/docs/ericatmilddis.html Read more on how AT can be applied in instruction of organization, note-taking, writing, productivity, and more.

86 86 Online Article 3 Everyone’s Classroom: An environment designed to invite and facilitate active participation http://www.isc.rit.edu/~easi/ak12/k12/k12atinclusion.html Explore an early childhood classroom that has been created with the needs of a diverse community of learners in mind, from low-tech adapted scissors to high-tech software.

87 87 Online Article 4 The Student-Computer Dialogue: Writing Help for Students with LD http://suite101.com/article.cfm/assistive_technology/18352 http://suite101.com/article.cfm/assistive_technology/18352 For more information on voice recognition and text-to-speech software, visit this article.

88 88 Online Article 5 Technology for ‘Ritin’ ‘Rithmatic http://suite101.com/article.cfm/assistive_technology/27499 http://suite101.com/article.cfm/assistive_technology/27499 If your interest is in mathematics, learn about two programs on the market that give students an opportunity to work through addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems on the computer screen.

89 89 Organizations to Visit Online Barrier-free Education http://barrier-free.arch.gatech.edu Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) http://www.cast.org/index.html Closing the Gap, Inc http://www.closingthegap.com

90 90 More Organizations to Visit Online Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, Technology (DO-IT) http://www.washington.edu/doit/ Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI) http://www.rit.edu/~easi Generating Assistive Technology Systemically (GENASYS) http://genasys.usm.maine.edu LD OnLine http://ldonline.org

91 91 Summary of Bridging the Gap Due to national standards and legal bases, general educators need to be prepared to teach a diverse group of learners Successful inclusion requires supportive collaboration between general and special educators and the consideration of AT

92 92 Summary, cont’d When meeting the needs of students with disabilities, educators can choose from an array of high- and low-tech AT Universal design in curriculum is the foundation of a sound learning environment Online resources are available!

93 93 About Our Modules Our workshops are designed to provide a barrier-free learning environment: High contrast between text and background Font type that can be easily read if magnified Alternative text transcriptions for audio Text descriptions of photos and graphics


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