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Causes of the Civil War Sino-Japanese War; China and WW2; Nationalist China.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the Civil War Sino-Japanese War; China and WW2; Nationalist China."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the Civil War Sino-Japanese War; China and WW2; Nationalist China

2 The Sino-Japanese War,  Coincides with Yanan period (from last lesson)  Japan first entered Manchuria in desired to extend control over rest of China  Large areas are under occupation  vies/china31_T1.mov vies/china31_T1.mov  Coincides with Yanan period (from last lesson)  Japan first entered Manchuria in desired to extend control over rest of China  Large areas are under occupation  vies/china31_T1.mov vies/china31_T1.mov

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6 Chiang Kaishek compromised struggle vs. Japan with aim of destroying the CCP  Chiang only offered limited resistance to the Japanese  The CCP meanwhile offered fierce resistance to Japanese  Chiang believed in avoiding engagement as China was too large for Japan to occupy without overstretching themselves:  ‘Selling space to buy time’  He moved resources which could have been used vs. the Japanese against the CCP  Chiang only offered limited resistance to the Japanese  The CCP meanwhile offered fierce resistance to Japanese  Chiang believed in avoiding engagement as China was too large for Japan to occupy without overstretching themselves:  ‘Selling space to buy time’  He moved resources which could have been used vs. the Japanese against the CCP

7 Chiang’s Policy had consequences:  He lost support within the GMD  There were demos in Beijing  In 1936 he was seized by troops acting for General Zhang Xue-Liang, then handed over to Zhou Enlai. Spared for cooperation.  Xian incident - notes  nd United Front - CCP looked more patriotic as result  He lost support within the GMD  There were demos in Beijing  In 1936 he was seized by troops acting for General Zhang Xue-Liang, then handed over to Zhou Enlai. Spared for cooperation.  Xian incident - notes  nd United Front - CCP looked more patriotic as result

8 Nationalist China,  ‘The GMD’s power in China was always more apparent than real’ - Lynch  Never control of more than 1/3 of land and 2/3 of population  Regionalism and population distribution meant that control not complete  Defeat of warlords incomplete - own armies and bribes  Also Japan: controlled large parts of China had to move capital to Chongquing  ‘The GMD’s power in China was always more apparent than real’ - Lynch  Never control of more than 1/3 of land and 2/3 of population  Regionalism and population distribution meant that control not complete  Defeat of warlords incomplete - own armies and bribes  Also Japan: controlled large parts of China had to move capital to Chongquing

9 Nationalist China Continued  GMD party = largely capitalist / entrepreneurial classes, with port / city concentration. Merchants and businessmen - little sympathy for peasants  Therefore would never be mass party  Revenue used in war not in industrial investment or agricultural reform - desperately needed  Needed to keep support of these groups but wouldn’t share power with business supporters  Financial shortage = big tax and borrowing (USA) = loss of support  Govt. was corrupt and nepotistic, and pandered to the West (upset Chinese)  GMD party = largely capitalist / entrepreneurial classes, with port / city concentration. Merchants and businessmen - little sympathy for peasants  Therefore would never be mass party  Revenue used in war not in industrial investment or agricultural reform - desperately needed  Needed to keep support of these groups but wouldn’t share power with business supporters  Financial shortage = big tax and borrowing (USA) = loss of support  Govt. was corrupt and nepotistic, and pandered to the West (upset Chinese)

10 More on the Nationalist Govt. CF. CCP  Key GMD Principle = ‘3 Principles’ not held by Chiang  Invented idea of ‘China’s destiny’ (1943) - sacrifice and commitment - not shown by him  Chinese saw CCP as incorruptible (not true) but was less brutal than govt. = support  Mao - Red Army policy of respect for peasants - contrasted with GMD food requisitioning and enforced military recruitment so CCP more popular in countryside  Mao: determined to ‘win hearts of countryside’ - largely succeeded, prelude to victory in 1949  Key GMD Principle = ‘3 Principles’ not held by Chiang  Invented idea of ‘China’s destiny’ (1943) - sacrifice and commitment - not shown by him  Chinese saw CCP as incorruptible (not true) but was less brutal than govt. = support  Mao - Red Army policy of respect for peasants - contrasted with GMD food requisitioning and enforced military recruitment so CCP more popular in countryside  Mao: determined to ‘win hearts of countryside’ - largely succeeded, prelude to victory in 1949

11  Summary of China in WW2  By 1939, as war started in Europe, China had been fighting a forgotten war for eight years. There were more than 2,000,000 Chinese casualties, widespread disease and famine. The Japanese declared China conquered, but the reality was that neither side could gain an upper hand. Chiang distrusted the Communists, and sent his army against them as often as he attacked the Japanese.  The West attempted to supply China through the Burma Road, a 700-mile single- lane road built by hand in Chiang was difficult to supply, not only because the Japanese repeatedly bombed the Burma Road's terminus in Kunming, but also due to the widespread corruption within the Kuomintang.  When Japan attacked the West in December 1941, additional supplies were already on the way. The Burma Road was lost, forcing the construction of the Ledo Road from India. Meanwhile Chiang was supplied by flights over the Himalayas.  US Army General Joseph Stilwell was given the task of commanding Allied forces in China. Stilwell was highly critical of Chiang Kai Shek's widespread corruption, obsession with the Communists, and lack of emphasis on training. Roosevelt sacked Stilwell at Chiang's urging in 1943 and replaced him with British General Lord Louis Mountbatten.  American war planning at the start of the war favoured China as the major area of operations to establish bases that could bomb Japan. Early on, it became clear that due to the political differences and the widespread corruption, China would be a secondary theatre of operations to the island hopping campaigns of the central and south pacific.  On August 8, 1945, the Soviet Union attacked, occupying most of Manchuria by the armistice on August 14th. The Soviets occupied Manchuria until 1949, when the Communists took control of the country.  Summary of China in WW2  By 1939, as war started in Europe, China had been fighting a forgotten war for eight years. There were more than 2,000,000 Chinese casualties, widespread disease and famine. The Japanese declared China conquered, but the reality was that neither side could gain an upper hand. Chiang distrusted the Communists, and sent his army against them as often as he attacked the Japanese.  The West attempted to supply China through the Burma Road, a 700-mile single- lane road built by hand in Chiang was difficult to supply, not only because the Japanese repeatedly bombed the Burma Road's terminus in Kunming, but also due to the widespread corruption within the Kuomintang.  When Japan attacked the West in December 1941, additional supplies were already on the way. The Burma Road was lost, forcing the construction of the Ledo Road from India. Meanwhile Chiang was supplied by flights over the Himalayas.  US Army General Joseph Stilwell was given the task of commanding Allied forces in China. Stilwell was highly critical of Chiang Kai Shek's widespread corruption, obsession with the Communists, and lack of emphasis on training. Roosevelt sacked Stilwell at Chiang's urging in 1943 and replaced him with British General Lord Louis Mountbatten.  American war planning at the start of the war favoured China as the major area of operations to establish bases that could bomb Japan. Early on, it became clear that due to the political differences and the widespread corruption, China would be a secondary theatre of operations to the island hopping campaigns of the central and south pacific.  On August 8, 1945, the Soviet Union attacked, occupying most of Manchuria by the armistice on August 14th. The Soviets occupied Manchuria until 1949, when the Communists took control of the country.

12 So what were the causes of the Chinese Civil War?  Write down as many ideas as you can think of - we will then pool ideas and discuss


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