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The Western Pioneers Click the mouse button to display the information. Americans moved west for land, adventure, or trade.  Many people believed that.

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Presentation on theme: "The Western Pioneers Click the mouse button to display the information. Americans moved west for land, adventure, or trade.  Many people believed that."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Western Pioneers Click the mouse button to display the information. Americans moved west for land, adventure, or trade.  Many people believed that the movement west was Manifest Destiny– the idea that the nation was meant to spread all the way to the Pacific.  The first settlers west of the Appalachians were squatters, because they settled on lands they did not own.  The Pre-Emption Act in 1841 gave them the opportunity to buy their land.

2 The push to settle Oregon and California happened partly because emigrants thought the Great Plains had poor farming land.  Settlers were interested in Oregon and California, although Native Americans and other nations had already claimed parts of the region.  The United States and Great Britain both wanted to own Oregon. The Western Pioneers (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

3 Britain dominated Oregon until about 1840 when many Easterners settled there as a result of the encouragement of American missionaries.  Most came for the farm land rather than the missionary work.  Mexico controlled California, and the local government wanted to attract more settlers.  Because few Mexicans wanted to live there, foreign settlers were welcomed. The Western Pioneers (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

4 By the 1840s, several east-west passages, such as the Oregon Trail, had been carved out.  These trails were very important to the settlement of the West.  As overland traffic increased, Native Americans on the Great Plains were concerned and angry over the large numbers of emigrants across their hunting grounds. The Western Pioneers (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

5 The Plains Indians relied on the buffalo, and they feared that the settlers would cause the buffalo herds to die off or migrate elsewhere.  The federal government and eight Native American groups negotiated the Treaty of Fort Laramie, in which the United States promised that defined territories would belong to the Native Americans forever. The Western Pioneers (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

6 Why did Native Americans begin to fear American settlers who migrated west? Native Americans feared the threat that immigration posed to their way of life. They relied on buffalo for their food, shelter, clothing, tools, and other necessities. They worried that the increasing flow of American settlers across their hunting grounds in the Great Plains would disrupt the buffalo herds. Click the mouse button to display the answer. The Western Pioneers (cont.)

7 Americans Settle in Texas Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas was under Mexican control after Mexico achieved independence from Spain in  Tejanos, the Spanish-speaking people of the area, had established settlements in the southern part of the region.  Since Tejanos refused to move to the northern part of the region where Native American groups lived, Mexico invited Americans and others to settle there.

8 Most American emigrants to Texas came at the encouragement of empresarios, or agents.  Mexico gave empresarios large areas of Texas land.  In return, the empresarios promised to get a certain number of settlers for the land.  Stephen Austin was the first and most successful empresario. Americans Settle in Texas (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

9 At first the Americans agreed to Mexican citizenship, as required for settlement.  But the Americans did not adopt Mexican customs, nor did they think of Mexico as their country. Americans Settle in Texas (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

10 In 1826 empresario Haden Edwards and his brother declared that the American settlements in Texas were the independent nation of Fredonia.  Stephen Austin and some troops, however, helped Mexico stop Edwards’s revolt. Americans Settle in Texas (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

11 The Mexican government feared an American plot to take over Texas.  So in 1830 Mexico closed its borders to immigration by Americans.  The government also banned the import of enslaved labor and discouraged trade with the United States.  These new laws angered settlers. Americans Settle in Texas (cont.) Click the mouse button to display the information.

12 Why did the Mexican government close its borders to American immigration? Americans did not adopt Mexican customs, nor did they think of Mexico as their country. A revolt led by an American caused the Mexican government to fear that the Americans wanted to take over Texas. So the government closed the borders to American immigration. Click the mouse button to display the answer. Americans Settle in Texas (cont.)

13 Texas Fights for Independence Click the mouse button to display the information. American settlers in Texas held a convention in 1832 and asked Mexico to reopen Texas to American immigrants and to decrease the taxes on imports.  The convention held in 1833 was more aggressive.  At that time, Texas was part of the Mexican state of Coahuila.  The convention members asked Mexico to separate Texas from Coahuila and create a new Mexican state.

14 The convention sent Austin to Mexico City to negotiate with the Mexican government.  Negotiations failed, and Austin wrote back to San Antonio suggesting that Texas should organize its own state government.  Stephen Austin then persuaded Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna to agree to lift the immigration ban and other demands.  Meanwhile, Mexican officials intercepted his letter. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

15 In January 1834, Austin was arrested by Mexican officials and jailed for treason.  In April 1834, Santa Anna denounced the Mexican Constitution and made himself dictator.  When Austin was granted amnesty from prison in 1835, he urged Texans to organize an army, because he foresaw war with Mexico.  The Texan army’s first victory against Mexico was at the military post of Gonzales. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

16 When Santa Anna and his forces came to San Antonio in February 1836, about 150 Texas rebels were at the Alamo.  The small force, commanded by William B. Travis and joined by 32 settlers, held off Santa Anna’s army for 13 days.  During this time the new Texas government declared independence from Mexico. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

17 On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna’s army defeated the Texans at the Alamo.  The dead included famed frontiersmen Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie.  Two weeks after the Alamo fell, the Mexican army forced the Texas troops to surrender at Goliad, a town southeast of San Antonio.  About 300 of the Texas troops were executed. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

18 At the Battle of San Jacinto, commander in chief of the Texas forces, Sam Houston, and his Texas troops launched a surprise attack on the Mexican army.  The Texan forces quickly beat the Mexican army.  They captured Santa Anna, who was forced to sign a treaty recognizing the independence of the Republic of Texas. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

19 In September 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.  The citizens of Texas also voted for annexation–to become part of the United States.  Many northern members of Congress were against admitting Texas as a slave state. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

20 Why did Texans declare their independence from Mexico? The Mexican government would not lift the ban on immigration to Texas, and it would not make Texas a separate state from Coahuila. After President Antonio López de Santa Anna made himself dictator of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin urged Texans to organize an army. Click the mouse button to display the answer. Texas Fights for Independence (cont.)

21 Texas and Oregon Enter the Union Click the mouse button to display the information. President John Tyler wanted to bring Texas into the Union.  Texas, however, was certain to be a slave state.  In early 1844, Congress voted against annexation of Texas.  Many Northerners thought that annexation was a pro-slavery plot.

22 James K. Polk was the Democratic candidate in the 1844 election.  He promised to annex Texas and the Oregon Territory and to buy California from Mexico.  He won the election. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas and Oregon Enter the Union (cont.)

23 President Polk said that the United States had a right to Oregon.  Those who supported this stand on Oregon used the slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight.”  In June 1846, Great Britain and the United States agreed that the United States would acquire most of Oregon south of 49° north latitude.  At the urging of outgoing president Tyler, Congress passed a resolution that annexed Texas. Click the mouse button to display the information. Texas and Oregon Enter the Union (cont.)

24 How did Texas and Oregon enter the Union? Texas was annexed after President Tyler sent a resolution to Congress to annex Texas. President Polk agreed to split the Oregon Territory with Great Britain, so the United States acquired Oregon south of 49° north latitude. Click the mouse button to display the answer. Texas and Oregon Enter the Union (cont.)

25 War With Mexico Click the mouse button to display the information. Angry at the annexation of Texas, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States government.  In addition, Mexico and the U.S. government disputed the location of Texas’s southwestern border.  In November 1845, President Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to purchase California.  Mexico’s president refused to meet with Slidell.

26 After Mexico refused to discuss the U.S. purchase of California, Polk ordered troops led by General Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces River.  Mexicans saw this as an invasion of their country.  A Mexican force attacked Taylor’s men.  Polk declared war with Mexico. Click the mouse button to display the information. War With Mexico (cont.)

27 Even before Polk signed the declaration of war, Taylor’s troops defeated Mexican forces in two fights.  Taylor and his troops continued south and defeated the Mexican army on two more occasions. Click the mouse button to display the information. War With Mexico (cont.)

28 In northern California, settlers led by U. S. general John C. Frémont had little trouble overcoming the Mexican representatives there.  On June 14, 1846, the settlers declared California independent from Mexico.  They called the region the Bear Flag Republic.  A few weeks later, however, U.S. naval forces took possession of California for the United States. Click the mouse button to display the information. War With Mexico (cont.)

29 Despite many defeats, Mexico refused to surrender.  President Polk replaced Taylor with General Winfield Scott and sent him and his troops to capture Mexico City.  The city was captured in September. Click the mouse button to display the information. War With Mexico (cont.)

30 On February 2, 1848, the leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.  In this treaty, Mexico gave the United States the land that includes what are now the states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as most of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.  Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. Click the mouse button to display the information. War With Mexico (cont.)

31 The U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take over $3 million in debt that the Mexican government owed American citizens.  War With Mexico (cont.) With Oregon and the former Mexican territories now a part of the U.S., the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized and the country stretched from ocean to ocean. Click the mouse button to display the information.

32 What were the provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? Mexico ceded to the U.S. the territory that includes what are now the states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as most of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. The U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take over $3 million in debt that the Mexican government owed American citizens. Click the mouse button to display the answer. War With Mexico (cont.)


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